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Clauses and Sentence Types

Clauses and Sentence Types

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Clauses and Sentence Types

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  1. Clauses and Sentence Types Objective: Students will identify grammatical rules associated with sentence structure and be able to apply these rules to enhance their writing ability.

  2. Sentence Rules • Every sentence must contain two parts: • subject: the NOUN that is doing the action of the verb • verb: the ACTION done by the SUBJECT It is easiest to identify the verb FIRST then figure out which noun/subject the verb is related to.

  3. Examples of Subjects • People: John, Larry, he, she, they, we, his, I, it • Places: Italy, school, home, store, California, heaven • Things/ideas: love, happiness, pillows, flowers, June, summer, Christmas, glass, heat, rain, thoughts, jewelry • Gerunds: words that commonly act as verbs BUT are used as the first word of the sentence AND end in “-ing”: sleeping, fighting, kissing, talking, forgetting, wishing (in this case, these words act as nouns/subjects)

  4. Examples of verbs • action words • any form of the verb to be: be, is, am, were, was • She is • He was • They were / are • I am • love, loves, loved, loving • I love • He loves • We loved • The kitten is loving

  5. Write the sentence. Next, circle the verbs then underline the subjects. • Ms. Allen loves kittens and pizza. • Kim is tired. • Today is Teacher Appreciation Day. • I wish I knew how to snowboard. • It is raining outside. • Answer the phone, please. • The really important issue of the conference is the morality for the nation. • Back at my desk, I poured myself a tall glass of water.

  6. Gary likes to eat cookies for breakfast. • There are many nouns in this sentence (Gary, cookies, breakfast). Which noun is the subject? • First, find the verb: likes • Note: your verb will NEVER be preceded by the word “to”; therefore, “to eat” is not the verb. • Then figure out who/what “likes” • Gary likes subject = Gary verb = likes

  7. Circle the VERB then underline the SUBJECT • Mark yelled, “Yeah!” in the middle of class. • Lino says hello to Ms. Allen every day on his way into fifth period. • Paz worked on his homework. • Janae is going to prom. • This year’s theme for prom is “Once Upon a Time.” • On the way home, Razel found five dollars.

  8. Clauses • A piece of a sentence that contains a SUBJECT and a VERB. • You must have at least one independent clause in order to have a complete sentence. • If you do not have a subject OR if you are missing a verb, then you do not have a clause so you therefore do not have a complete sentence. • If you do not have a complete sentence, it is considered a SENTENCE FRAGMENT. If you have a fragment, you must add the missing subject or verb.

  9. Are these complete sentences? Circle the verb and underline the subject. • Paul ran to the store. • Does Ramceslike to sing in the middle of class? • Together at the beach. • January is a cold month. • Testing the water. • Testing the water is necessary before jumping into a pool. • Crying herself to sleep.

  10. Write TWO clauses • Circle the subject • Underline the verb

  11. Infinitives • If you ever see the word “to” before a verb, this will NOTbe the clause’s verb • For example: I want to eat a burger. • the verb is “want” (NOT “to eat”) • Subject = I To infinity and beyond! “To” infinitive and be gone!

  12. 2 Types of Clauses • Independent Clause: contains a subject and a verb BUT it can stand alone • she ate pizza • Dependent Clause: contains a subject and a verb BUT it CANNOT stand alone because it has a subordinator attached to it • although she ate pizza • Examples of subordinators: • although • even though • because • since • so that • if

  13. Independent Clauses look like this: • I went to the store • Christmas is an internationally celebrated holiday • the ducklings followed their momma duck • granola bars make me feel more hungry • eating granola bars makes me feel more hungry All of these contain a subject and a verb. None of these contain a subordinator like: although, since, even though, if, when, because, after, as, before, even if, once, rather than, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while, why

  14. Dependent Clauses look like this: • If I went to the store • Although Christmas is an internationally celebrated holiday • Since the ducklings followed their momma duck • When I eat granola bars • Even though granola bars make me feel hungry All of these contain a subject and a verb. All of these also contain a subordinator. The subordinato makes it so that the clause cannot stand alone.

  15. 4 Types of Sentences • There are four types of sentences. Each sentence type is a different combination of the two types of clauses. • Simple • Compound • Complex • Compound/Complex

  16. 4 Types of Sentences Explained • Simple = indep clause • Compound = indep comma, + FANBOYS + indep • Complex =1 dep and 1 indep indep + dep dep comma, + indep • Compound/Complex =1 dep + 2 indep dep comma, + indep comma, + FANBOYS + indep indep comma, + dep comma, + indep indep comma, + indep comma, + dep

  17. Simple Sentence • Contains ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE only • I like to eat pizza. • She went to the store. • June is my favorite month. • Weddings are fun and exciting.

  18. Compound Sentence • Contains TWO INDEPENDENT clauses connected with a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION FANBOY and a COMMA • I like to eat pizza, AND I like to shop. • She went to the store, BUT she didn’t buy anything. • June is my favorite month, YET it is very hot. • Reunions are fun and exciting, FOR they bring people together. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so

  19. Find the Coordinating Conjunctions • MUST connect TWO independent clauses!!! • Carly wanted to buy a bouquet of flowers, but she didn’t have enough money. • Harrison ate all of his spaghetti, yet he didn’t like it. • She was going to buy the book, or she was going to ride her bike. • Cecilia was going to fall asleep and dream.

  20. COMPLEX SENTENCE • Contains ONE DEPENDENT CLAUSE and ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE. Complex sentences may or may not contain a comma. • I like to eat pizzaALTHOUGH I like to shop. • ALTHOUGH she went to the store,she didn’t buy anything. • June is my favorite monthEVEN THOUGH it is too hot. • Reunions are fun and exciting SINCE they bring people together. • The dependent clause can come before or after the independent clause. • IF the dependent clause comes before the dependent, use a comma. • Don’t use a comma IF the dependent clause comes second.

  21. Find the SUBORDINATING Conjunctions • Carly wanted to buy a bouquet of flowers although she didn’t have enough money. • Harrison ate all of his spaghetti even though he didn’t like it. • If she was going to buy the book, she was going to ride her bike to get there. • Since Cecilia was going to fall asleep and dream.

  22. Identify the TYPE of Sentence • None of the other jurors asked me to change my mind. • Barbara and Jeanne whispered and giggled all night. • If you ask me, falling asleep is my favorite time of day. • The boy who is speaking is my brother, and he will be staying with us. • I know you don't like him, but that doesn't matter. • Don’t forget to wish him luck! • Pick up your clothes since we have company coming over.

  23. Dependent Clause • Begin with a subordinator: • If, since, because, even though, although

  24. Answer Key • Simple • Simple • Complex • Compound • Compound • Simple • Complex

  25. Compound/Complex • Saved for later ☺

  26. Prepositional Phrases • At home At = preposition; home = noun. • In time In = preposition; time = noun. • From Richie From = preposition; Richie = noun. • With me With = preposition; me = pronoun. • By singing By = preposition; singing = gerund. • About what we need About = preposition; what we need = noun clause.

  27. From my grandmother From = preposition; my = modifier; grandmother = noun. • Under the warm blanket Under = preposition; the, warm = modifiers; blanket = noun. • In the weedy, overgrown garden In = preposition; the, weedy, overgrown = modifiers; garden = noun. • Along the busy, six-lane highway Along = preposition; the, busy, six-lane = modifiers; highway = noun. • Without excessively worrying Without = preposition; excessively = modifier; worrying = gerund.

  28. A prepositional phrase will function as an adjective or adverb. As a adjective the prepositional phrase will answer the questions Which one? • The books on the bathroom floorare torn. • Which book? The one on the bathroom floor! • The sweet potatoes in the vegetable bin are green with mold. • Which sweet potatoes? The ones forgotten in the vegetable bin! • The note from Beverly confessed that she had eaten the leftover pizza. • Which note? The one from Beverly!

  29. As an adverb, a prepositional phrase will answer questions such as How? When? or Where? • Freddy is sore from yesterday's long football practice. How did Freddy get sore? From yesterday's long football practice! • Before class, Josh begged his friends for a pencil. When did Josh do his begging? Before class! • Feeling brave, we tried the Dragon Breath Burritos at Tito's Taco Palace. Where did we eat the spicy food? At Tito's Taco Palace!

  30. Which sentence is correct? • One of the cookbooks contains the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew. • One of the cookbooks contain the recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew.

  31. Remember that a prepositional phrase will never contain the subject of a sentence. • Sometimes a noun within a prepositional phrase seems the logical subject. Don’t fall for that trick! You will NEVER find a subject in a prepositional phrase. Example: Neitherof these cookbookscontainsthe recipe for Manhattan-style squid eyeball stew. • Cookbooks do indeed contain recipes. In this sentence, however, cookbooks is part of the prepositional phrase of these cookbooks. Neither—whatever a neither is—is the subject for the verb contains. • Neither is singular, so you need the singular form of the verb, contains. If you incorrectly identified cookbooks as the subject, you might write contain, the plural form, and thus commit a subject-verb agreement error.

  32. The same way we cross out infinitives when trying to identify the verb in a clause, we must cross out the prepositional phrase in order to identify the subject AND choose the correct verb form (singular or plural).

  33. Some prepositions—such as along with and in addition to—indicate "more to come." They will make you think that you have a plural subject when in fact you don't. Don't fall for that trick either! Read this example: • Tommy, along with the other students, breathed a sigh of relief when Mrs. Markham announced that she was postponing the due date for the research essay. • Logically, more than one student is happy with the news. But Tommy is the only subject of the verb breathed. His classmates count in the real world, but in the sentence, they don't matter, locked as they are in the prepositional phrase.

  34. about but for out • above by from outside • across behind in over • after below inside past • against beneath into since • along beside like through • among between near throughout • around despite off till • at down of to • before during on toward • beyond except onto under • until up upon underneath • with within without

  35. Practice: BOX the preposition and Underline the Prepositional Phrase • On his way to class, John tripped. • When she saw him, Jill asked, “Have a nice trip?” • “You act like it has never happened you,” he said as he pointed at her. • Just then, she helped John up off the ground. • Even though he was embarrassed, he was grateful that she had been there even after the bell.