Paper 1 – Language and the individual – AO1, AO3, AO4 Paper 2 – Language Varieties – AO1, AO2, AO5 Exams: You have 1hr 30 mins for each
Paper 1 – Language and the individual – AO1, AO3, AO4 • Will always be phrased exactly the same. • Have you seen this type of question before? What skills do you already have that will help?
Assessment Objectives: • AO1 – Apply appropriate methods of language analysis, using associated terminology and coherent written expression. • AO3 – Analyse and evaluate how contextual factors and language features are associated with the construction of meaning. • AO4 – Explore connections across texts, informed by linguistic concepts and methods.
ENGLISH LANGUAGE We’re going to be doing lots of different stuff (who knows what you’ll get in the exam?!) but for now, we’re going to introduce you to spoken language MODES OF LANGUAGE You’ll be expected to be able to analyse different modes of language Written Spoken Electronic
Speeches Conversations SPOKEN LANGUAGE spontaneous vs. crafted TV shows Novel extracts Interviews Poems
TALK But why is talk even a worthy area of study? Does how we talk matter? Why is it interesting / worth while to consider?
DISCUSS • We’re going to look at the following: • What is talk? • Why is talk so very important? • What are the purposes of talk? • Does the context matter? • How do you talk? Does it matter?
WHAT IS TALK? For each of the examples you’re about to see, make notes on why they could be considered talk and why it is not talk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pg1qLJ_6-LE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y2cTM4iIrDs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNTcFNlybCQ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IyV2j4BsEM8
HOW DID IT ALL BEGIN? • Humans invented language by adapting their breathing and their ability to bite, taste and swallow food, in order to produce sounds. In this way, language could be regarded as ‘educated breath’ (Charlton Laird) • 4 million years ago: Our human ancestors (hominids) split off from the other primates and then… • 2 million years ago: We developed to be homo habilis • 1.5 million years ago: We developed to homo errectus • 100,000 – 200,000 years ago: It is thought that language was first used by modern man (homo sapiens)
Talking is what makes us human. Animals, insects, birds, even plants successfully communicate through a rich variety of means – but only humans can articulate their most complex ideas, feelings, and needs by means of the vast, global range of sound systems, which we call language. Historically, written language has always been valued more highly than spoken language because of its relative permanence. Pictures, hieroglyphics, pictograms, characters, ideograms and alphabet letters have been used by human beings to record and relay information to each other since the days of cave paintings and drawings scratched on rocks. Great advances in the study of spoken language this century have been made possible by the tape recorder and dictaphone. Recordings of a vast range of naturally occurring spoken languages can be made and analysed. Another major advance in the re-evaluation of spoken language, has been the development of the computer, with its capacity for storage, classification and analysis of information. Remarkable changes in our interest in and attitude towards spoken language are happening now. It is an ever moving, ever fluid and ever changing force. Instead of talk being regarded as ephemeral and if little value compared with written language, we learn from linguistics that spoken language is an equally complex and valuable system of communication.
Talk: To communicate, usually by means of speech. Communication happens between most animals, plants and organisms on this planet Communication via speech is unique to homo sapiens There is always an audience for talk, though this audience can be yourself!
Why is talk so important? Try and write a conceptual paragraph that explores the question above. Talking is… We talk in order to… Talking can be… Talk changes when… Talking is important because…
TALK If you are asked to analyse spoken talk, the likelihood is it will involve talk of some kind You’ll need to work out if it’s spontaneous or crafted What’s the difference? Can you think of examples?
Spontaneous v Scripted Speech What are the features of spontaneous speech? Listen to the two clips. Which one is spontaneous? Which is scripted? How can you tell? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcCBRpIfYnk http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JrEPVE-G0k
WHAT ARE THE PURPOSES OF TALK?
The purpose of spontaneous talkTRIPE You should try to identify the actual purpose of the talk from the outset. You’ll notice that there is often some overlap between the different purposes. Here is an acronym to help remember the most common purposes: • T – transactional: exchanges where there is some negotiation (asking for directions) • R – referential: providing information ( giving details of an event ) • I – interactional: social exchanges • P – phatic: small talk, devoid of serious content • E – Expressive: conveying or describing feelings. The purposes of talk in literature can be very different – we’ll come back to that!
Write down the names of the first three people that you spoke to today. Can you write down exactly what you said to them? Why did you speak to each of these people? How would you identify the purpose of the talk? How did you come to that conclusion?
What’s the purpose of the utterances below? • How you doing, mate? • I really think I’m in love with you – I just can’t stop thinking about your blue eyes. • The philosophy of utilitarianism is concerned with creating the greatest happiness for the greatest number. • Remember to turn the lights off before you leave the building. • So I caught up with Sarah the other day, and you won’t believe what she told me about what went on at Jack’s party. If only you hadn’t left so early! • Excuse me, could you tell me the way to reception? Of course, just follow the corridor straight and it’s on your left. • This is such a super song – I love the bass line! • You always speak so eloquently. I really think you should be the one to represent us in class discussion. • The concert starts at 10pm tonight, but doors open from 9. • I name this baby, Eric.
DOES THE CONTEXT MATTER?
One afternoon, Miss Wright was sitting quietly in her classroom, working hard preparing lessons for her year 12s and looking forward to reading her book/pretending not to watch rubbish TV later that evening. Suddenly, she heard shouting from the corridor. She went out to find a terrible fight in the corridor between two year ten boys. She stormed outside and broke up the fight, then spoke severely to the two boys about their behaviour. After breaking up the fight, she decided to telephone the mother of one of the boys to inform her of what had happened. At the end of the day, she let off steam by discussing the incident in the staffroom with her colleagues.
How does the context change between: • Group One – the interaction between Miss W and one of the boys • Group Two – the conversation between Miss W and the boy’s mother / father • Group Three – the conversation between Miss W and the teachers in the staffroom.
Context • The way in which we talk will always be influenced by context. This can influence: • Subject matter – what you talk about • Manner – how you talk • Lexical choices – the words you use • Length of turn – how much you say
Register: The style of language that is appropriate to a particular register Eg. A register can be formal, informal, scientific, religious etc. Whether a register is appropriate depends on the context it’s used in – using an informal register in a formal situation might be inappropriate because it seems disrespectful and rude. Likewise, using overly formal language in an informal situation might sound unfriendly and stuck up.
Rules of Conversation Imagine what would happen to language if there were no rules to follow during conversations. Then it would be perfectly acceptable to follow "Hi, how are you doing?" with "cars are typically made from steel", or to simply lie with every statement you made. But then communication would be virtually impossible. It is clear that in normal conversation we don't simply say whatever we please, but instead follow some general guidelines as to what is acceptable and what isn't. The question now is, what exactly are these rules? One of the most basic assumptions we must make for successful communication to take place is that both people in a conversation are cooperating.
That’s not what I asked!☹ No-one is listening to me. ☹ I can’t follow this conversation. ☹ I can’t get a word in here. ☹ Why is he talking to me like that? ☹ Other rules of talking… How rude. She just interrupted me.☹ In pairs find 9 rules we obey when we talk to each other. You can include turn taking. Place them in a diamond shape – the most important rule goes at the top. The least at the Bottom.
In pairs decide why each of these ‘rules’ is important…
Let’s share our conversations…. • What is the purpose of the talk – TRIPE? • What is the context of the talk? • What is the subject? • Can you identify any key features? • Are the rules of conversation being upheld or challenged? What about Grice’s Maxims? • How does purpose, context and subject impact on the use of talk and its features?
AO1 – Identifying using terminology… • RAG the terms…..how many do you already know? • What do you need to learn for next week?
Let’s apply! To the texts! • For each transcript: 1. Identify key features of talk using terminology 2. Identify purpose - TRIPE 3. Consider the context – WHERE? SUBJECT? SPEAKERS? 4. Identify formal/informal register
Comment on HOW purpose/context and register have an impact on these. WHAT does the language tell you? • Consider the rules of conversation and whether they are being upheld or flouted – WHY?
HOW DO I TALK? DOES IT MATTER? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KM9d_eZhFnk
Key term! What is your idiolect? What do you say to get someone’s attention? What do you say when you think something is rubbish? What words do you say frequently? What do you say when you think someone is attractive? What do you say when you really like something?
TASK How do you define the way you talk? Come up with a way to present all of the ideas we have talked about For example you could present your ideas as a mind map, a rap, a flow diagram, a collage, chart, a bullet point list, etc.
WORK FAMILY FRIENDS Vocabulary= Formal Education jargon Passionate Vocabulary= Relaxed Excitable Gossipy Vocabulary= Caring Relaxed In charge! ME OTHER POINTS OF INTEREST: SAYINGS DIALECT / ACCENT “Oh my days!” “Piffle” Shorten words Love to talk Will fill silences Talked for Beth Talk too quick Standard English
HOMEWORK Record a little bit of a conversation Be prepared to share it in class!