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1. 14 PARTIAL DERIVATIVES

2. PARTIAL DERIVATIVES 14.5 The Chain Rule • In this section, we will learn about: • The Chain Rule and its application • in implicit differentiation.

3. THE CHAIN RULE • Recall that the Chain Rule for functions of a single variable gives the following rule for differentiating a composite function.

4. THE CHAIN RULE Equation 1 • If y =f(x) and x = g(t), where f and g are differentiable functions, then y is indirectly a differentiable function of t, and

5. THE CHAIN RULE • For functions of more than one variable, the Chain Rule has several versions. • Each gives a rule for differentiating a composite function.

6. THE CHAIN RULE • The first version (Theorem 2) deals with the case where z =f(x, y) and each of the variables x and y is, in turn, a function of a variable t. • This means that z is indirectly a function of t, z =f(g(t), h(t)), and the Chain Rule gives a formula for differentiating z as a function of t.

7. THE CHAIN RULE • We assume that f is differentiable (Definition 7 in Section 14.4). • Recall that this is the case when fx and fyare continuous (Theorem 8 in Section 14.4).

8. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Theorem 2 • Suppose that z =f(x, y) is a differentiable function of x and y, where x = g(t) and y = h(t) are both differentiable functions of t. • Then, z is a differentiable function of tand

9. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Proof • A change of ∆t in t produces changes of ∆x in x and ∆y in y. • These, in turn, produce a change of ∆z in z.

10. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Proof • Then, from Definition 7 in Section 14.4, we have: • where ε1 → 0 and ε2 → 0 as (∆x, ∆y) → (0,0). • If the functions ε1 and ε2 are not defined at (0, 0), we can define them to be 0 there.

11. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Proof • Dividing both sides of this equation by ∆t, we have:

12. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Proof • If we now let ∆t → 0 , then • ∆x = g(t +∆t) – g(t) → 0 • as g is differentiable and thus continuous. • Similarly, ∆y → 0. • This, in turn, means that ε1→ 0 and ε2→ 0.

13. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Proof • Thus,

14. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • Since we often write ∂z/∂x in place of ∂f/∂x, we can rewrite the Chain Rule in the form

15. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 1 • If z =x2y + 3xy4, where x = sin 2t and y = cos t, find dz/dt when t = 0. • The Chain Rule gives:

16. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 1 • It’s not necessary to substitute the expressions for x and y in terms of t. • We simply observe that, when t = 0, we have x = sin 0 = 0 and y = cos 0 = 1. • Thus,

17. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • The derivative in Example 1 can be interpreted as: • The rate of change of zwith respect to t as the point (x, y) moves along the curve C with parametric equations x = sin 2t, y = cos t

18. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • In particular, when t = 0, • The point (x, y) is (0, 1). • dz/dt = 6 is the rate of increase as we move along the curve Cthrough (0, 1).

19. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • If, for instance, z =T(x, y) = x2y + 3xy4 represents the temperature at the point (x, y), then • The composite function z =T(sin 2t, cos t) represents the temperature at points on C • The derivative dz/dt represents the rate at which the temperature changes along C.

20. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 2 • The pressure P (in kilopascals), volume V(in liters), and temperature T (in kelvins) of a mole of an ideal gas are related by the equation PV = 8.31T

21. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 2 • Find the rate at which the pressure is changing when: • The temperature is 300 K and increasing at a rate of 0.1 K/s. • The volume is 100 L and increasing at a rate of 0.2 L/s.

22. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 2 • If t represents the time elapsed in seconds, then, at the given instant, we have: • T = 300 • dT/dt = 0.1 • V = 100 • dV/dt = 0.2

23. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) Example 2 • Since , the Chain Rule gives: • The pressure is decreasing at about 0.042 kPa/s.

24. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • We now consider the situation where z =f(x, y), but each of x and y is a function of two variables s and t: x = g(s, t), y =h(s, t). • Then, z is indirectly a function of s and t,and we wish to find ∂z/∂s and ∂z/∂t.

25. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • Recall that, in computing ∂z/∂t, we hold s fixed and compute the ordinary derivative of z with respect to t. • So, we can apply Theorem 2 to obtain:

26. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 1) • A similar argument holds for ∂z/∂s. • So,we have proved the following version of the Chain Rule.

27. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 2) Theorem 3 • Suppose z =f(x, y) is a differentiable function of x and y, where x = g(s, t) and y = h(s, t) are differentiable functions of s and t. • Then,

28. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 2) Example 3 • If z = ex sin y, where x =st2 and y =s2t, find ∂z/∂s and ∂z/∂t. • Applying Case 2 of the Chain Rule, we get the following results.

29. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 2) Example 3

30. THE CHAIN RULE (CASE 2) Example 3

31. THE CHAIN RULE • Case 2 of the Chain Rule contains three types of variables: • s and t are independent variables. • x and y are called intermediate variables. • z is the dependent variable.

32. THE CHAIN RULE • Notice that Theorem 3 has one term for each intermediate variable. • Each term resembles the one-dimensional Chain Rule in Equation 1.

33. THE CHAIN RULE • To remember the Chain Rule, it’s helpful to draw a tree diagram, as follows.

34. TREE DIAGRAM • We draw branches from the dependent variable z to the intermediate variables x and y to indicate that z is a function of x and y.

35. TREE DIAGRAM • Then, we draw branches from x and yto the independent variables s and t. • On each branch, we write the corresponding partial derivative.

36. TREE DIAGRAM • To find ∂z/∂s, we find the product of the partial derivatives along each path from z to s and then add these products:

37. TREE DIAGRAM • Similarly, we find ∂z/∂t by using the paths from z to t.

38. THE CHAIN RULE • Now, we consider the general situation in which a dependent variable u is a function of n intermediate variables x1, . . . , xn. • Each of this is, in turn, a function of mindependent variables t1 , . . ., tm.

39. THE CHAIN RULE • Notice that there are n terms—one for each intermediate variable. • The proof is similar to that of Case 1.

40. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Theorem 4 • Suppose u is a differentiable function of the n variables x1, x2, …, xn and each xjis a differentiable function of the m variables t1, t2 . . . , tm.

41. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Theorem 4 • Then, u is a function of t1, t2, . . . , tmand • for each i = 1, 2, . . . , m.

42. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 4 • Write out the Chain Rule for the case where w =f(x, y, z, t) and x =x(u, v), y =y(u, v), z =z(u, v), t =t(u, v) • We apply Theorem 4 with n = 4 and m = 2.

43. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 4 • The figure shows the tree diagram. • We haven’t written the derivatives on the branches. • However, it’s understood that, if a branch leads from y to u, the partial derivative for that branch is ∂y/∂u.

44. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 4 • With the aid of the tree diagram, we can now write the required expressions:

45. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 5 • If u =x4y +y2z3, where x =rset, y =rs2e–t, z =r2s sin tfind the value of ∂u/∂s when r = 2, s = 1, t = 0

46. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 5 • With the help of this tree diagram, we have:

47. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 5 • When r = 2, s = 1, and t = 0, we have: x = 2, y = 2, z = 0 • Thus,

48. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 6 • If g(s, t) = f(s2 – t2, t2 – s2) and f is differentiable, show that g satisfies the equation

49. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 6 • Let x =s2 – t2 and y =t2 – s2. • Then, g(s, t) = f(x, y), and the Chain Rule gives:

50. THE CHAIN RULE (GEN. VERSION) Example 6 • Therefore,