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RTI

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  1. RTI What is Response to Intervention? C. Lee Goss, 2007 

  2. What is Response to Intervention? • Response to Intervention (RTI) is an early intervention and prevention model that begins in general education • Response to Intervention (RTI) is a systematic and data-based method for identifying, defining, and resolving students’ academic and/or behavioral difficulties in general education C. Lee Goss, 2007

  3. History of RTI • Initiatives to reduce the number of students in special education developed in response to the increasing special education population • RTI followed REI and Inclusion • Regular Education Initiative (REI) • Full Inclusion • RTI is more comprehensive than REI and inclusion because it utilizes a data-based problem-solving process C. Lee Goss, 2007

  4. Regular Education Initiative • The Regular Education Initiative (REI) occurred in the late 1980’s after the U.S. Dept of Education compiled data highlighting the increasing numbers and limited progress of children with disabilities • The goal of REI was to include children with disabilities in “regular” classes as much as possible C. Lee Goss, 2007

  5. REI Outcomes • REI was more of an philosophy than a regulated policy • Limited data on the implementation of REI was required or collected • When PL 94-142 came up for reauthorization again in 1990, data showed greater numbers of children receiving services • Largest category for services was Specific Learning Disability (SLD) C. Lee Goss, 2007

  6. Inclusion • Starting in the 1990’s, another initiative related to special education began • There was a call for inclusion of all children in general education • Advocates for children with severe and profound disabilities argued that too many of these children were placed in specialized classrooms, and excluded from general or mainstream classrooms C. Lee Goss, 2007

  7. Inclusion, cont’d. • Inclusion was a philosophical grass-roots movement focused on the social importance of grouping all children together, regardless of ability • Although there was very little data to support inclusion for all students, it became a popular policy in many schools • Data on inclusion has shown that it does encourage social engagement among students of diverse abilities, but it interferes with the specific learning goals and outcomes of all students C. Lee Goss, 2007

  8. Curriculum-Based Measurement • In 1970s, coinciding with PL 94-142, a group of researchers in Minnesota began developing assessment measures that could be used to determine whether students in special education were making progress from instruction • These measures were refined over time and are now known as curriculum-based measurement (CBM) C. Lee Goss, 2007

  9. Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM), cont’d. • CBM was explicitly designed to be: • Sensitive to individual student growth over short periods of time (ex: weekly) • Show skill fluency (thus they are timed) • Drawn directly from the curriculum and skills students were learning in school • Able to inform the next instructional steps • Over time CBM contributed to the data demonstrating the efficacy of RTI C. Lee Goss, 2007

  10. Key Features of RTI • Prevention-based model • Primary—before any problems exist • Secondary—at the first sign of problems • Tertiary—to reduce effects of problems • Includes three elements: • Effective instruction • Data recording • Systematic review of data to inform instruction (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005) C. Lee Goss, 2007

  11. RTI is a Well-Child Program for Education • Prevention efforts facilitate educational wellness to foster educational success for all students • RTI is congruent with a public health prevention model where routine doctor visits and a healthy lifestyle promote physical wellness • Incorporates regular screening of ALL children to determine who is at risk for developing academic and/or behavioral problems • Provides strategic interventions for children determined at-risk in the early stages of a problem • Acknowledges that some children will have serious and persistent problems and outlines procedures to assist them C. Lee Goss, 2007

  12. Health Care Infant screenings Annual check-ups Comparison to developmental standards Immunizations Use of research-based standard protocol treatments for common problems Hypothesis testing as part of evaluation Referral for specialist care if needed (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2005) Education Standardized Kindergarten screening Three yearly “check-ups” Comparison to local and national benchmarks Use of research-based instruction for general education instruction Hypothesis testing as part of curriculum and assessment practices Referral to special education only if progress in other instruction is not made RTI is a Well-Child Program for Education C. Lee Goss, 2007

  13. RTI Stages • All stages occur in general education • RTI is generally viewed as a multi-tier (stage) model often described as a 3-Tier Model • The level of intervention and individualized assistance is determined by the student response to academic/behavioral instruction • Outcome indicators (data) are essential to determine the student response to the instruction C. Lee Goss, 2007

  14. 3-Tier RTI Model • Tier 1 • Scientifically-based general education instruction with universal screening and regular progress monitoring (3x/yr) • Tier 2 • Intensive small-group scientifically-based instruction with regular individual progress monitoring (weekly) • Tier 3 • Individualized scientifically-based instruction with frequent progress monitoring (daily) • Simultaneous referral for comprehensive evaluation for special education services using a problem-solving model C. Lee Goss, 2007

  15. C. Lee Goss, 2007

  16. RTI and Prevention • RTI is based on a public health prevention model • Public health prevention model involves 3 stages: • Primary: Efforts to prevent the problem for all through routine screenings and well checks • Secondary: Intervention efforts to treat and stop identified problems from getting worse • Tertiary: Intensive intervention efforts to lesson the effects of a serious and persistent problem over the lifespan • Each stage of prevention matches an RTI tier C. Lee Goss, 2007

  17. Special Education as Intensive Care • Notice that special education occurs after and outside of the 3 RTI tiers • Rationale: RTI is a general education initiative that is designed to promote effective educational outcomes for all children • Special education was designed to be and should be intensive intervention (ICU) for those children with chronic and serious educational needs C. Lee Goss, 2007

  18. Brief Example of RTI • A brief example of implementing RTI at each tier is outlined in the next few slides • Notice that instruction and assessment components must be included in each tier • These activities include primary prevention for all students from the first day of school C. Lee Goss, 2007

  19. RTI Components: Tier 1 Tier 1 RTI Activities: • Classroom reading instruction using research-based curriculum • Oral reading fluency benchmarks to monitor student progress (all) 3 times per year • Identification of lowest 20% • Comparison with teacher judgment • Next step: Tier 2 C. Lee Goss, 2007

  20. RTI Components: Tier 2 • Tier 2 activities: • Daily small group research-based instruction in addition to whole class instruction (added reading instruction) • Direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in the identified core reading skill(s) students need • Monitor student progress weekly using DIBELS. Those students still not meeting benchmark goals at pre-set time points w/ more intensive intervention efforts are referred To Tier 3 • Next Step: Tier 3 C. Lee Goss, 2007

  21. RTI Components: Tier 3 • Tier 3 activities: • Review of Tier 2 data • Intensive individualized research-based instruction to help student in area(s) of need • Referral to special education for comprehensive evaluation to identify why student has not responded to intervention • Ongoing frequent progress monitoring (daily) • IEP Team meeting to determine next steps C. Lee Goss, 2007

  22. Summary • RTI is a 3-Tier method of providing effective instruction for all students • RTI incorporates prevention, early intervention, and data-based problem-solving • RTI is a general education procedure that helps classroom teachers learn in the early stages which students need specific types of help to facilitate academic/behavior success C. Lee Goss, 2007