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World War I -- America on the Homefront: "The Poster War"

World War I -- America on the Homefront: "The Poster War". War Mobilization. 1. Enlistment. The Most Famous Recruitment Poster. Uncle Sam—He the Man!. Don’t Mess with the U. S. “ Huns Kill Women and Children!”. The “Little Soldier”. World War I American “Anthem”. The Spirit of ’76’.

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World War I -- America on the Homefront: "The Poster War"

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  1. World War I -- America on the Homefront: "The Poster War"

  2. War Mobilization

  3. 1. Enlistment

  4. The Most Famous Recruitment Poster

  5. Uncle Sam—He the Man!

  6. Don’t Mess with the U. S.

  7. “Huns Kill Women and Children!”

  8. The “Little Soldier”

  9. World War I American “Anthem”

  10. The Spirit of ’76’

  11. 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

  12. 2. Expansion of the Federal Government

  13. Council of National Defense War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H.Taft & Frank P. Walsh

  14. U. S. Food Administration

  15. U. S. Food Administration

  16. U. S. Food Administration

  17. National War Garden Commission

  18. U. S. School Garden Army

  19. U. S. Shipping Board

  20. U. S. Fuel Administration

  21. U. S. Fuel Administration

  22. Results of This New Organization of the Economy? • Unemployment virtually disappeared. • Expansion of “big government.” • Excessive govt. regulations in eco. • Some gross mismanagement; overlapping jurisdictions. • Close cooperation between public and private sectors. • Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

  23. New Social/Economic Opportunities

  24. 1. Women

  25. YWCA – The Blue Triangle

  26. Munitions Work

  27. The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!

  28. Women Used In Recruitment Hello, Big Boy!

  29. Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds

  30. The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World

  31. National League for Woman’s Service

  32. 2. African-Americans

  33. Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 “Great Migration.” 1916 – 1919  70,000 War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.

  34. True Sons of Freedom

  35. “Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in Chicago”, 1919

  36. 3. New American Immigrants

  37. The “Flag of Liberty” Represents All of Us!

  38. We are ALL Americans!

  39. Wartime Propaganda

  40. The Committee of Public Information (George Creel) America’s “Propaganda Minister?” Anti-Germanism. Selling American Culture.

  41. “Remember Belgium”

  42. The “Mad Brute”

  43. Beat Back the “Hun”

  44. The “Menace of the Seas”

  45. Creel Commission Film

  46. Attacks on Civil Liberties

  47. Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans • Espionage Act– 1917 • - forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. • ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. • fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

  48. Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 2.Sedition Act– 1918- it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive languageabout this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

  49. Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 3.Schenck v. US– 1919 In ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1st Amendment. BUT, every act of speech must be judged acc. to the circumstances in which it was spoken. The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.[Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.

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