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world map evolution (i)

Evolution of the World Map. A Antiquity. B Middle Ages. C Age of Discovery. D Modern Era ... Creation of the first accurate world maps. Central America, 1514 ...

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world map evolution (i)

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  1. GEOGRAPHY 1001 – INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY Joseph Naumann -- UMSL Evolution of the World Map A – Antiquity B – Middle Ages C – Age of Discovery D – Modern Era

  2. Antiquity • Herodotus (circa 450 BC) • Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry. • Father of geography. • Basic physical and human geography. • Exploration and travel instead of geometry. • Coined the terms Europe, Asia and Africa (Libya).

  3. Herodotus (450 B.C.) (recreation)

  4. Antiquity Frigid • Aristotle (circa 350 BC) • Considered physical elements such as the temperature and winds as factors of the human habitat. • Division of the world in 3 climatic zones. • Relationships between the environment (temperature) and human habitat. • One of the first physical geographer. Ekumene Torrid Equator

  5. Antiquity • Eratosthenes (circa 250 BC) • Formally assumed the earth was round. • Calculated the circumference of the earth. • 40,572 km versus the exact figure of 40,091 km. • Developed the concepts of parallel and meridian. • Consequently introduced the concept of geographical location. • Created modern cartography (cartographic plane).

  6. Eratosthenes (194 B.C.) (reconstruction)

  7. Antiquity • Ptolemy (circa 150 AD) • Refined the coordinate system. • Inventory of population and resources. • Describing the world. • 8,000 entries. • Relationships between the physical and human elements. • Created map projections.

  8. Ptolemy's (150 AD) Ulm edition world map, 1482

  9. Middle Ages • Period of decline • The cartographic and regional approach was lost in Europe. • Representation of the world was “Christianized”. • Orthodoxy replaced objective observation and analysis. • “T and O” Maps. • Greek and Roman knowledge kept by the Byzantine Empire and by the Arabs.

  10. Macrobian World Map (5th Century)

  11. Redrawing of Cosmas Indicopleustes' World (6th Century)

  12. World Map of Guido of Pisa, 1119 A.D.

  13. Jerusalem, the Center of the World

  14. Age of Discovery • Exploration and innovation • The 15th and 16th centuries were characterized by numerous maritime explorations. • A commercial expansion of European nations. • Several technical innovations. • The compass, more precise maps. • Larger ships (they passed from 200 to 600 tons during the sixteenth century), better ship structures and the rudder. • Insure a safe, fast and therefore profitable maritime navigation. • Creation of the first accurate world maps.

  15. Central America, 1514

  16. Mappa Geographia Universalis (H Sherer 1703)

  17. Modern Era • A complete world map • Early 20th century. • Complete and accurate view of the world. • Coordinate systems. • National inventories of resources. • Information technologies • Use of remote sensing (aerial photographs and remote sensing). • G.I.S. & Digital maps.

  18. "The Living Earth" Satellite Composite, 1995

  19. Problem of Distortion • All maps, by their very nature contain some type of distortion. • Converting a 3-dimensional spherical surface to a 2-dimensional “flat” surface.

  20. Essentials of a good map • Title – view knows what to expect • Grid – allows for easy, accurate locating • Direction arrow or compass rose – to orient the map to reality • Scale – to allow one to relate distances on the map to the actual distances on the earth. • Key or Legend – so the viewer can understand what the symbols and colors represent.

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