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  2. THE BIBLE AND THE REFORMATION Gutenberg Bible • In the early 16th century, Europeans developed a consuming passion for the Bible • Scriptures rolled off printing presses in all languages and forms from the large Gutenberg Bibles to small pocket Bibles for soldiers • When Martin Luther created a German translation, his Bible became an immediate best seller Luther Bible

  3. A REFORM IMPULSE • A renewed spiritually and desire to change many of the traditional practices of the Roman Catholic Church was sweeping through Europe • The demand for reform came from within the Church and from outside the Church • The inspiration for reform was based on the Word of God – vernacular Bibles allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own languages

  4. THE BIG PICTURE • In the early 16th century Europeans experienced one of the greatest of all religious rebirths: the Protestant Reformation • The Reformation was a movement to purify the Catholic Church that resulted in the creation of new denominations collectively known as Protestants from their “protest” against the Church

  5. THE INTELLECTUAL REFORMATION • If new ideas about religion were to supplant old ones, they had to communicated • That was made possible with the invention of the printing press which appeared in the late 15th century in Germany and spread across Europe rapidly • The development of printing did not cause religious reform, but reform would have been difficult to achieve without it

  6. THE PRINTING REVOLUTION • The printing revolution represents one of the true technological revolutions in Western history – it was rated the #1 event of the last millennium in a Life Magazine special in 2000 • Printing was not invented per se, but rather was achieved through progress in related industries such as papermaking and goldsmithing

  7. PAPER PLAYS KEY ROLE • Sheepskin and calfskin were used for manuscripts and book reproduction • This process was slow and expensive • In the early 15th century paper made from linen rags were substituted and made for better impressions and a smoother surface An early paper mill

  8. PRINTING SPREADS RAPIDLY • Once it began, printing spread quickly • By 1480, more than 110 towns had established presses, most in Italy and Germany • By 1500, Venice and Paris were the centers of the industry • Most of the subject matter was religious or classical

  9. PRINTING BECOMES PART OF CULTURE • In the first 40 years after the presses began, as many as 20,000,000 books were produced • Printing changed the habits of teachers and students, and altered the way governments did business • It affected legal training and proceedings • Printing standardized languages and furthered science • It created an international intellectual community and increased the value of ideas and thinking Printing allowed commoners to read the Bible in their own language

  10. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM • By the beginning of the 16th century, the force of humanism was felt strongly in northern and western Europe • As Italian humanism moved northward it merged with traditional theological teaching • The combination became a powerful intellectual movement known as Christian humanism

  11. ITALIAN HUMANISM VS. CHRISTIAN HUMANISM • Italian intellectual interests were largely secular subjects, especially classical languages and texts • Christian, or Northern humanists, applied the techniques to the study and translation of Christian texts • Furthermore, Christian humanism was a program of reform rather than philosophy

  12. REFORM THROUGH EDUCATION • Christian humanism aimed to make better Christians through better education • Humanists founded schools for girls and advocated that they be trained in the same subjects as boys • Schools now trained many who were not destined for careers in the Church

  13. ERASMUS: THE CHRISTIAN HUMANIST • The man most closely associated with Christian Humanism was Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam • Educated by the Brethren of Common Life, Erasmus had a quick wit and an enormous intellect • He sought to bring the gospel to all: “The doctrine of Christ casts aside no age, no sex, no fortune or position in life. It keeps no one at a distance.” Erasmus 1466-1536

  14. IN PRAISE OF FOLLY • Erasmus’s satire, Praise of Folly (1509), was one of the first best sellers in publishing history • The book focused on the abuses in the Catholic Church through his dialogue with his friend Thomas More • Erasmus was especially critical of the clergy saying, “. . . they are a style of man who show themselves exceeding supercilious and irritable . . .”

  15. ERASMUS TRANSLATES BIBLE • Erasmus was called “the father of biblical criticism” for his attacks upon the Scholastics, superstition, and the pretensions of the Church • Erasmus’s Greek translation of the New Testament appeared in 1516 Durer Erasmus's text served as the foundation for critical editions of the Greek New Testament into the modern era

  16. THE LUTHERAN REFORMATION • By the early 16th century, abuses in the Catholic Church were causing many to call out for reform • Charges against the clergy included simony (the selling of church offices), pluralism (holding more than one church office), and absenteeism

  17. INDULGENCES • Indulgences came to viewed as pardons to the individual who bought them • Therefore, one could theoretically buy their way out of purgatory • Indulgences were bought by the living to cleanse the sins of the dead, and some people even bought indulgences in anticipation of sins they had not yet committed

  18. WHAT WERE INDULGENCES? • Indulgences were a means to spend less time in purgatory • At this time the worry was not going to hell, but spending a long time in purgatory. By purchasing an indulgence, you could get out of purgatory sooner • Indulgences also were extraordinarily important for the papacy as a major source of income • Indulgences were used to finance major building projects

  19. INDULGENCES BECOME BIG BUSINESS Relics • Indulgences were one of the first items printed on Gutenberg’s press • Popes used special occasions to offer indulgences for papal projects (fundraisers) • Other indulgences were licensed locally, usually at shrines of saints or at churches that contained relics

  20. RELICS BECOME INCREASINGLY POPULAR • Frederick III, “the Wise” (1463-1525), ruler of Saxony, was one of the largest collectors of relics • He had 17,000 items, including a branch of Moses’ burning bush, straw from Christ’s manger, and 35 fragments of the true cross • Taken as a whole, his relics carried remission for sins that would have otherwise taken equal to 250,000 years in purgatory

  21. TETZEL SELLS INDULGENCES Tetzel • In 1517, the Pope was offering a special indulgence to finance the rebuilding of the St. Peter’s Basilica • A Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel was hired to promote the latest indulgence • By October, Tetzel was nearing Wittenberg Castle and a professor at the local college chose that night to post his famous 95 theses on castle church door The Showdown

  22. LUTHER CHALLENGES INDULGENCES • By the fall of 1517, the frenzy to buy indulgences had prompted some priests and monks to criticize the practice • Among his 95 Theses was a scathing indictment of the practice of selling indulgences • His theses were immediately translated into German and spread throughout the HRE Luther’s 95 Theses

  23. ON LUTHER • A gifted student, Luther experienced a scare early in life when he was almost struck by lightning • He then entered a monastery and was ordained in 1507 • He continued his education and received a doctorate and was appointed to the theology faculty at Wittenberg in 1512

  24. LUTHER IN TURMOIL • Despite being a successful preacher and teacher, Luther was tortured by his own sense of sinfulness • Luther: “I was one who terribly feared the last judgment and who nevertheless with all my heart wished to be saved.” • No amount of good works could overcome Luther’s feelings of guilt for his own sins Luther was tormented about his own salvation

  25. “THOU SHALL LIVE BY FAITH” • Luther’s reading of Saint Paul’s words, “Thou shall live by faith,” provided the answer to his torment • Luther believed that through God’s grace, salvation was not a burden but a gift from a merciful God • Salvation could not be earned, but was given freely; Sola Fida Sola fida (by faith alone) was one of Luther’s key tenets

  26. LUTHER’S KEY TENETS • The second major tenet of Luther’s was Sola Scriptura (by word alone) • Faith in God’s mercy came only from the knowledge and contemplation of the word of God (Bible) • All that was needed to understand God’s mercy was contained in the Bible Baptism Luther believed in only two of the seven sacraments Communion

  27. SOLA GRATIA • Sola gratia is a Luther doctrine which teaches that God extends love and favor to sinners on the basis of the atonement accomplished through the death and resurrection of Jesus and the merit of Christ's righteousness • Man, being sinful, does not earn or deserve the love and favor of God; rather, God chooses to give that which man does not merit • It is God's grace (Sola gartia) that saves us through faith

  28. PRIESTHOOD OF ALL BELIEVERS • Luther thought that all who believed in God’s righteousness were equal in God’s eyes • Neither pope nor priest, neither monk or nun, could achieve a higher level of spirituality than the ordinary citizen • Ministers and preachers were valuable, but could not confer faith

  29. LUTHER UNDERMINES AUTHORITY OF RCC • The doctrine of justification by faith alone meant the RCC’s emphasis on good works and sacraments were called into question • Luther’s doctrine of faith through individual biblical study weakened the authority of the clergy • Finally, his doctrine of equality of all believers struck at the heart of the long-established hierarchy of the RCC Which man do you think history credits for “laying the egg that Luther hatched”?

  30. THE DIET OF WORMS • Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521, Luther was then ordered by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to appear before the Diet assembled in Worms, Germany • Charles ordered Luther to recant his teachings • Luther replied, “I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise” • Charles V declares Luther an enemy of the empire – in both Church and state he was now an outlaw Pope Leo X, center, excommunicated Luther in 1521 for his radical views

  31. Emperor Charles V looks on as Luther, gesturing skyward, defends his beliefs at the Diet of Worms in 1521

  32. LUTHER CONTINUES TO DEFY AUTHORITIES AND GAIN SUPPORT • Luther wrote many controversial books and essays after posting his theses • His Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520), called upon princes to take the reform of religion into their own hands • Some powerful supporters emerged such as Prince Frederick III of Saxony • Additionally, political issues such as Charles’ desire to maintain the support of German princes played into Luther’s hand Luther took advantage of new printing technology to author 30 works between 1517-1520

  33. LUTHER HAS PRINCES’ SUPPORT • There were two key reasons German princes turned to Luther’s theology • First, sincere religious conviction • Second, economic considerations such as increased personal revenue (Luther’s call for civic leaders to lead their own churches meant they could keep their own revenues) German princes were not above using the new theology for their own gain

  34. CITIES EMBRACE LUTHER • The Reformation spread especially well in the German cities • Once Protestant princes adopted the ideas, entire towns followed • Urban dwellers had long resented the benefits bestowed on the RCC (land) and the clergy (exempt tax status) • Once Protestant, city governments secured their own autonomy over the Church by taking over many of the religious houses and encouraging monks and nuns to enter civilian life Luther Bible

  35. LUTHER APPEALS TO PROMINENT WOMEN • Noblewomen were among the most important defenders of Protestant reformers • Marguerite of Navarre (1492-1549), sister of Francis I, created her own court in the south of France and stocked it with humanists and Protestants • Bona, wife of Sigismund I of Poland, was especially important in the eastern reform movement • An Italian by birth, Bona was a central figure in spreading both Renaissance and art and humanism learning in Poland

  36. LUTHER APPEALS TO COMMON WOMEN, TOO • The doctrine of equality of all believers put men and women on equal spiritual footing, even if it did not allow for women ministers • Furthermore, Luther realized the enormous value of family life and holy matrimony • Finally, by promoting the education of both genders, Luther further gained the support of women Despite his radical views on gender equality spiritually, Luther had traditional, conservative views about women’s role in society and the household

  37. THE SPREAD OF LUTHERANISM • By the end of the 1520s, the HRE was divided between cities and states that accepted reformed religion and those that adhered to the RCC • Included in the Lutheran movement were parts of Germany, Poland-Lithuania, Prussia, Scandinavia and Switzerland In Denmark, Christian III seized RC Church lands and created a reform religion under Luther’s direct control

  38. ZWINGLI BRINGS REFORM RELIGION TO SWITZERLAND • Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) brought reformed religion to the town of Zurich • Zwingli was a preacher among the Swiss mercenary troops that fought for the HRE • He was stricken by the plague in 1519 and came to a personal realization of the power of God’s mercy Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531)

  39. ZWINGLI’S BELIEFS • Zwingli believed the Church had to rediscover its earlier purity • He stressed the equality of all believers, justification by faith alone, and the gospel as the chief authority • He attacked indulgences, penance, clerical celibacy, prayers to the Virgin, and statues and images in churches • Furthermore, he preferred to view mass as a commemorative event rather than one that involved the real presence of Christ (Lord’s Supper) Zwingli viewed communion as a memorial, thus symbolic and not the actual blood and body of Christ

  40. ZWINGLI’S IDEAS SPREAD • The principles Zwingli preached spread quickly to neighboring Swiss states; including Bern and Basel • Zwingli’s reform were carried out by civil governments which he allied himself • In Zwingli states there was an important integration of church and state • It was fitting that Zwingli died on the battlefield defending the state Zwingli felt church and state could not be separated

  41. THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION • By the mid 1530s, Protestant reform had entered a new stage • Luther never intended to form a new religion; most of his energy was expended in attack on Rome and the RCC • The second generation of reformers were builders whose challenge was to create enduring structures for reformed churches

  42. GENEVA AND CALVIN • The town of Geneva, Switzerland was saved from a war with Savoy when it allied with powerful Swiss neighbor, Bern • In 1536, the adult males of Geneva voted to become Protestant • All they lacked was a powerful reformer; that’s when a French-born priest and lawyer emerged to lead Geneva’s reform movement

  43. CALVIN’S FLEES FRANCE • At age 20, Calvin converted to Lutheranism and predictably was run out of France by Francis I • In 1535, he arrived in Basel, where he wrote his Institutes of the Christian Religion • The book was a defense of French Protestants against persecution • For the next 25 years, Calvin organized his reform church in Geneva

  44. CALVIN’S BELIEFS • Like Luther and Zwingli, Calvin believed in justification by faith alone, the biblical foundation of religious authority, and that salvation came from God’s grace • But more strongly than his predecessors he believed that the gift of faith was granted only to some and that each individual’s salvation or damnation was predestined (predetermined) before birth

  45. CALVIN AND PREDESTINATION • The doctrine of predestination was not new, but Calvin emphasized it and brought it to the center of the faith • Those who were predestined to salvation, the “elect” were obliged to govern; those who were predestined to damnation were obliged to be governed • For Calvin, therefore, discipline and structure were critical Or

  46. CALVIN’S CHURCH STRUCTURE • Calvin’s greatest contribution to religious reform came in church structure and discipline • He structured his church in four parts: • 1) Pastors Very few who preached the word of God • 2) Doctors (Theological) Studied and wrote • 3) Deacons Laymen who ran hospitals and schools • 4) Elders Governors of moral issues Strict moral codes meant rock n’ roll was prohibited in Calvin’s Geneva

  47. CALVIN’S DISCIPLINE • The most controversial part of Calvin’s Geneva was the strict moral code that extended into all aspects of private life • The 12 elders met each week in a body known as the Consistory to examine violations • Offenses ranged from blasphemy to adultery to prostitution

  48. CALVINISM SPREADS • Waves of Calvinist-educated pastors returned to France in the mid-16th century and established churches along Calvinist lines • Calvinism spread north to Scotland and the Low Countries and east to Poland where it flourished in Lithuania and Hungary • Perhaps it greatest impact was in Britain, where the Reformation took place not once but twice