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England in the Middle Ages

England in the Middle Ages. Western Civilization December 13, 2013. Angles & Saxons. Northern Germanic peoples Migrated into British island in 5 th Century. What’s a rose by any other name?. The term Anglo-Saxon did not come into use until the 8 th Century

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England in the Middle Ages

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  1. England in the Middle Ages Western Civilization December 13, 2013

  2. Angles & Saxons • Northern Germanic peoples • Migrated into British island in 5th Century

  3. What’s a rose by any other name? • The term Anglo-Saxon did not come into use until the 8th Century • Settlers began referring to themselves as Angli, or English

  4. 410-1066 • Constant war • Expansion and Retraction • Mergers • Influence of Roman Catholicism • Cultural Diffusion

  5. Trouble at Home • England taken over by Danish King Cnut • Danish/English Rule • Leofric and Godwine • All loyal to Cnut • Cnut married Norman girl Emma, to please the Duke of Normandy

  6. Trouble at Home • King Edward, forced out by Cnut, lived in exile for 30 years • Allied himself with the “Frenchmen” • Placed his allies in positions of power in order to usurp the throne • Edward’s “Frenchmen” forced to flee • Godwine family extremely powerful, again

  7. Trouble at Home • No heir • King Edward has no children • Harold Godwinson eyes the throne • Pick Someone! • Edward chooses a young duke from Normandy as his heir - William

  8. William the Bastard • illegitimate son of Duke Richard II • Grew up amidst assassination & civil war • Emerged as a powerful general in 1047 at the Battle of Val-ès-Dunes • Established himself as the Duke of Normandy

  9. Cheated • A stolen throne • Harold becomes king • William, furious, decides to attack

  10. William the Conqueror • The Norman Conquest(1066) • Battle near Hastings • Harold killed

  11. King William I • Norman knights given fiefs in return for oath of loyalty • Norman aristocracy becomes dominant political force • Domesday Book – first census since Roman control • Consolidated much of the British Island under one king • Marriage of Normans and Anglo-Saxons merged French and Germanic languages into English

  12. History of the English Language

  13. The English Monarchy • More Power • The English Kings continued to gain more power • Henry II • Moved criminal and property cases to royal court • Claimed right to try clergymen in royal court • Common Law

  14. The Great Charter • English nobles rebelled against the growing power of the monarch • Forced King John to sign a document of rights • The Magna Carta (1215) • Relationships based on mutual obligation • King’s power is limited, not absolute

  15. No Freeman shall be…imprisoned… except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land • To no one will we sell, to no one will we refuse or delay, right or justice • If anyone has been dispossessed or removed by us, without the legal judgment of his peers, from his lands, castles, franchises, or from his right, we will immediately restore them to him • All fines made with us unjustly and against the law of the land, and [fines] imposes unjustly and against the law of the land, shall be entirely remitted

  16. English Parliament • Created under the reign of Edward I • Composed of: • 2 knights from every county • 2 commoners from every town • All nobles and bishops • House of Lords = nobles and bishops • House of Commons = knights and commoners • Granted taxes, discussed politics, and passed laws

  17. Russia and the Mongols • Crash Course: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=etmRI2_9Q_A&list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9&index=20

  18. Homework • Research and build a trebuchet for the Trebuchet Olympics on Monday

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