MASS (WEIGHT) & BALANCE

# MASS (WEIGHT) & BALANCE

## MASS (WEIGHT) & BALANCE

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1. MASS (WEIGHT) & BALANCE LECTURE 3 WEIGHT CONTROL, EFFECT OF WEIGHT & WEIGHT CHANGE MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

2. IMPORTANT FACTS CRITICAL SITUATION FOR AIRCRAFT TAKE-OFF STRUCTURAL LIMIT LANDING MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

3. To ensure aircraft can fly safely, limitation are set by the design engineer. • Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW): The maximum permissible weight to conduct a takeoff. • Maximum Landing Weight (MLW): The maximum permissible weight to conduct a landing. • Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MZFW): The maximum weight of an aircraft which its structural limits would allow. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

4. REMEMBER !! For Take-Off: AUW/TOW ≤ MTOW For Landing: AUW/LW ≤ MLW MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

5. All Up Weight (AUW) Where, PAYLOAD = Passengers & Cargo FUEL = Flight Fuel + Reserve Fuel DOW = Dry Operating Weight DOW also known as Aircraft Prepared for Service (APS) AUW = DOW + PAYLOAD + FUEL MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

6. EXAMPLE #1 Aircraft fly from M to N, given: • MTOW = 6180kg • MLW = 5740kg • MZFW = 5395kg • DOW=4400kg • Flight Fuel = 767kg • Reserve Fuel=250kg Calculate maximum payload that the aircraft is able to carry. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

7. SOLUTION EXAMPLE #1 First we must know that the critical situations for aircraft are: • During Take-off (MTOW) • During Landing (MLW) • In term of structural limit. (MZFW) So, we have to consider these situation and calculate for all. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

8. Continue.. For Take-Off: AUW/TOW ≤ MTOW • We must ensure the All Up Weight during Take-off must equal or less than Maximum Take-Off Weight. • Fuel = Flight Fuel + Reserve Fuel. • Find the PAYLOAD! AUW = DOW + PAYLOAD + FUEL MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

9. Continue.. For Landing: AUW/LW ≤ MTOW • We must ensure the All Up Weight during Landing must equal or less than Maximum Landing Weight. • Fuel = 0. We have used all the fuel during flight. • Find the PAYLOAD! AUW = DOW + PAYLOAD + FUEL MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

10. Continue.. Structural Limit To make sure the structure of aircraft did not fail / damage, we must consider the MAXIMUM ZERO FUEL WEIGHT. Maximum ZERO FUEL WEIGHT Is the Total weight of aircraft WITHOUT FUEL MZFW = AUW - FUEL MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

11. Comparison . . . • Maximum Payload during take-off = • Maximum Payload during landing = • Maximum Zero Fuel Weight = Select the lowest Payload as your answer. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

12. EXAMPLE #2 Aircraft fly from A to B, given: • MTOW = 41,300kg, MLW = 32,250kg • DOW = 23,000kg • Fuel Flow= 2000kg/hr • Mean Speed=455knots (knots = miles/hr) • Flight Distance=2150nm (nm = nautical miles) • Reserve Fuel=2500kg Calculate maximum payload that the aircraft is able to carry. (**Assume MZFW is not specified) MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

13. Solution #2 • Step 1 : Calculate Flight Time Flight Time = (distance/mean speed) • Step 2 : Calculate Flight Fuel Flight Fuel = Flight time x Fuel Flow • Step 3 : Same as solution example 1. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

14. Comparison . . . • Flight Time = • Flight Fuel = • Maximum Payload during take-off = • Maximum Payload during landing = • Maximum Zero Fuel Weight = Select the lowest Payload as your answer. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

15. QUIZ # 1 • For example, if an airplane is flying at a weight of 5,000 lb and the weight of fuel on board is 500 lb. What is the Zero Fuel Weight? • Some time later, after 100 lb of fuel has been consumed by the engines, the total weight of the airplane is 4,900 lb and the weight of fuel is 400 lb. What is the Zero Fuel Weight? MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

16. LECT 3 : WEIGHT CONTROL • Weight is a major factor in airplane construction and operation • Manufacturers try to make an aircraft as light as they can. • But still they have to consider the strength and the safety of aircraft. • Excessive weight cause: • Aircraft efficiency reduce • Poor performance during flight • Safety margin available reduce • Aircraft stability reduce • Reduce economical profit MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

17. MK Airlines Flight 1602, a 747-200F, crashed while attempting to take off from Halifax Stanfield International Airport on 14 October 2004. The aircraft's take-off weight had been incorrectly calculated, and the plane was only briefly airborne before impacting an Earth berm at the end of the runway. The seven-member crew was killed. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

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19. Effects Of overloaded airplane 1. Increased Take-off Speed • Because more lift is necessary to counter the additional weight, higher speed is necessary to create sufficient lift to attain flight. 2. Longer Take-off Run • The increase in necessary speed for takeoff and slower acceleration due to increased weight translates to more runway required to accelerate the airplane to takeoff speed. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

20. Effects Of overloaded airplane 3. Lower Cruising Speeds • Production of additional lift to counteract greater weight results in an increase in drag. • This increased drag reduces the speed at which the airplane travels 4.Less Maneuverability • The heavier the airplane is, the less maneuverable it becomes. • This is so because the force necessary to change the speed or direction of an object in motion increases with the mass of the object. • Maneuverability = aircraft ability to turn away from its previous path. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

21. Effects Of overloaded airplane 5. Reduced Landing Performance • Overloaded can cause higher approach and landing speeds are necessary. Higher landing speed thus lead to greater landing distance. 6. Aircraft Structure Damage • Although the primary concern of an overloaded airplane is its effect on aerodynamic performance, a secondary concern is its effect on structural components, such as landing gears. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

22. WEIGHT CHANGES • Items that contribute to weight changes: • Fuel Load • Cargo and Passenger • Equipment and Modification Fuel Load • The operating weight of an aircraft can be changed by simply altering the fuel load. • During flight, fuel burn is normally the only weight change that takes place. • As fuel is used, an aircraft becomes lighter and performance is improved. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC

23. Continue. . . Cargo & Passenger • This weight can’t be altered during flight. • But we can monitor this weight before our journey. Equipment & Modification • Change of fixed equipment have a major effect upon aircraft weight. • Installation extra radios or instrument may affect the weight. • Aircraft modification and repairing may contribute to weight change. MBC 3204 - SIR ARIFF AMC