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The 1960s. The Social, Political, Economic, Environmental, Cultural, Historical Significance of the Sixties S.P.E.E.C.H. New Jersey State Standards: . Postwar Years (1945-1970s).
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The 1960s The Social, Political, Economic, Environmental, Cultural, Historical Significance of the Sixties S.P.E.E.C.H.
New Jersey State Standards:. Postwar Years (1945-1970s) • Analyze United States foreign policy during the Cold War period, including US/USSR relations, United States reaction to the Soviet subjugation of Eastern Europe, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Korean and Vietnam Wars, and relations with China. • Analyze political trends in post war America, including major United States Supreme Court decisions and the administrations of Harry Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson. • Analyze the Civil Rights and Women's Movements, including the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Civil Rights Act (1957 and 1964), the Little Rock Schools Crisis, the Voting Rights Act, Brown v. Board of Education, the formation of the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the American Indian Movement (AIM), the formation of the National Organization for Women (NOW), and the passing of Title IX.
“Every generation needs new revolution” Thomas Jefferson:
Changing Times The American Revolution, Constitution period, War of 1812, Mexican War, Civil War, World War I, Great Depression, World War II, 1960s, and the New Economy of the 80s
The Sixties Popular Culture, Counter Culture, Social Revolution, Swinging Sixties, New Right, New Left, Anti-war Movement, Civil Rights, Women’s Movement, Summer of Love
Facts about this decade Population 177,830,000 Unemployment 3,852,000 National Debt 286.3 Billion Average Salary $4,743 Teacher's Salary $5,174 Average Minimum Wage $1.00 Life Expectancy: Males 66.6 years, Females 73.1 years Auto deaths 21.3 per 100,000
The Sixties: Counterculture Sociological term used to describe the values and behaviors of a cultural group, or subgroup that run counter to the social mainstream. In the United States, the term became popular in the 1960s to refer to the social revolution that swept through the nation.
The Sixties: Counterculture The counterculture of the 1960s included young people’s rejection of: Conventional social norms Political segregation Vietnam War
The Sixties: Counterculture Members of the counterculture were predominately white upper middle class youth. They were the first group of young people who had sufficient leisure time to raise concerns about social issues. Civil Rights, Vietnam War, Women’s Rights, Sexual Liberation, Drug use
The Sixties: Counterculture The Generation Gap As the Sixties progressed tensions developed along generational lines. Vietnam War Race relations Sex Drug use Authority Materialistic view of the American Dream Over 30
The Sixties: Counterculture Students for a Democratic Society, SDS The Port Huron Statement June 15, 1962, written by Tom Hayden … a manifesto by the SDS that attacked racial bigotry, poverty, nuclear weapons, etc. It was also an attack on Pres. Kennedy’s foreign policy Unofficial response to the Sharon Statement
The Vietnam War Dien Bien Phu, 1954 Geneva Peace Conference, Geneva Accords 17th Parallel: North: Democratic Republic of Vietnam Ho Chi Ming South: The Republic of Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem
The Vietnam War Fighting between the North and South The United States aided the South Vietcong Gulf of Tonkin incident Domino Theory US vs. Soviet Union and Communist China
The Vietnam War Public Opinion Tet Offensive My Lai Massacre Major Colin Powell Conscientious Objector
The Sixties: Anti-war movement The anti-war movement rose out of the 1950s peace movement 1965 bombing of North Vietnam The draft Universities became the focal point but the movement had become broad based Teach-ins, Sit-ins Kent State shootings
The Sixties: Anti-war movement Kent State Shootings: May 4, 1970
Assassinations Medgar Evers John F Kennedy Malcolm X Martin Luther King Robert Kennedy
Race Riots 1964 New York City, New York - July Philadelphia 1964 race riot; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - August 1965 Watts Riot; Los Angeles, California - August 1966 Cleveland, Ohio - July San Francisco Chicago Race Riot -January 1967 Newark, New Jersey - July Detroit, Michigan - July Milwaukee, Wisconsin - July 30-31 Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota - August 1968 Baltimore riot of 1968; Baltimore Maryland Washington, D.C. riots; Washington, D.C. New York City, New York
The Sixties: Feminist Movement Presidential Commission on the Status of Women Equal Pay Act of 1963 The Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan NOW: National Organization for Women “ full and equal partnership with men”
The Sixties: New Left C. Wright Mills Counterculture Establishment/Anti-establishment Students for a Democratic Society Noam Chomsky, Tom Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin
The New Right Silent Majority Most youth in the Sixties were not counter culture. Conservative Concerns: Affirmative Action, busing, anti war demonstrations, big gover’t and taxes The election of 1968 Conservative religious right
The Sixties: Popular Culture Youth and sex Beatniks to hippies Recreational drug use Artistic and spiritual epiphany ….. addictions and deaths
The Sixties: Legacy Conservative Views Congressman Dick Armey “everything bad comes from the 1960s.” End of bipartisanship in foreign policy Vietnam Syndrome Traditional family values lost “poverty of values” Pres. Johnson’s “Great Society” failed
The Sixties: Legacy Liberal Views Political Activism Equal Rights: 1964, 1965 “culture of excess” Vietnam Syndrome Pres. Johnson’s “Great Society” More inclusive and tolerant society
The Sixties Both Conservatives and Liberals agree: The Sixties influence still felt today Novelist William Faulkner: “ the past is not dead. It’s not even past”.
The Sixties: Music Changes in popular music: Doo Wop to Rock and Roll Elvis, Bill Haley, Buddy Holly, Little Richard Singer song writers: Bob Dylan, Lennon-McCarthy, Brian Wilson Social implications: music and the musicians lifestyles, fashions, attitudes, and language Motown, British Invasion, Surf Sound, Acid Rock
The Sixties: Music Social implications Music and the musicians rock music influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language It appealed to the baby boomer generation
The Sixties: References Neale, Jonathan, The American War Brian Longhurst, Popular music and society Paul Lyons, New Left, New Right, and the Legacy of the Sixties James Farrell, The Spirit of the Sixties Michael W. Flamm, David Steigerwald, Debating the 1960s