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Class overview

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Class overview

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  1. Class overview • Name that rhetorical choice (with Facebook posts)! • Orwell and the Rhetoric of Hate • Revision of Conclusion Strategies • Group Writing Exercise • BA8 Directions

  2. Orwell and the Rhetoric of Hate

  3. “It is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer … [The English language] becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish … but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts."

  4. It is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer By “politics,” Orwell refers to political leaders and governments, but his use of the term extends to the publiclanguage of any individual.

  5. Rhetoric of Hate • Often relies of fallacious (logically unsound) and the gullibility of the audience to accept such illogic as reasonable and truthful.

  6. Rhetoric of Hate Two categories of fallacies in most hate group arguments: • Illogical appeals to feelings, passions, and prejudices • Oversimplifications (including either-or fallacies, only-reason fallacies, red-herring fallacies, false generalizations, false analogies, etc.)

  7. NAAWP Opening message: “The NAAWP doesn’t stand for hating anyone, and more importantly it never has. It’s about building a new, better society.”

  8. From “As American as Apple Pie.” The men who drafted the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of Rights, and the Constitution were all White. Every one of them. They believed in racial separatism. They shared a common cultural background. And none of them wanted racial mixing! Looking back further, to the time of the Pilgrims, the rule existed that if a man would not work, he would not be given part of the meager remaining supplies to eat. Like the NAAWP, they were simply saying that those who are to be part of society must contribute, and those who will not contribute are parasites.

  9. Only recently has diversity and affirmative action been made an issue of national policy. And then, only as a weapon used against Whites. Is it any wonder that so many of our youth lack energy, staring with a vacant gaze into a flickering television screen? They have been bombarded with constant propaganda telling them that White people have oppressed and persecuted minorities, that Whites are all things bad and evil. They don't hear about the great scientists and explorers, the brilliant authors, the hard working inventors that made possible the world of today! The technology we enjoy is almost entirely due to the efforts of White scientists and inventors. And, if we permit our race to fail, the world will descend into a primitive barbarism that can scarcely be imagined.

  10. Revising Your Conclusion For BA7, you must incorporate a conclusion strategy from section 5f2 of The St. Martin’s Handbook.

  11. Revising Your Conclusion Some General Tips: • Ask yourself: when you see a movie, read a book, etc., what expectations do you have for that ending? • Is my thesis clearly stated in the conclusion? Do I need to revise my thesis based on the other revisions that I’ve made throughout my paper, especially in the introduction? • Are my main points restated clearly and briefly? Present your preceding ideas in a new and interesting form. • Do I explain the significance of my argument. Does my conclusion answer the “so what?” part of my argument. In other words, does the reader understand why my argument is important? How does my argument change the way that we will approach this text from now on?

  12. Ineffective Conclusion Strategies Silver Lining: “Everything will be all right in the end…,” or some mention of there always being a good side. Avoid moralizing. Presenting a cure-all: “Simple communication will easily solve all problems…” Conclusions that raise new problems or topics: “But having said this, several other areas should be considered….” The apology: “I’m really not qualified to write about this topic but.” The “In conclusion” conclusion: Don’t start of your conclusion with “In conclusion” nor should you use this phrase anywhere in your conclsuion.

  13. Concluding With a Question As people live much longer lives through the advance of technology. Therefore, the question of adequate medical care is a key concern. We must approach this issue with great care to ensure that all receive the healthcare they need to live healthy lives. What else can we as a society do to ensure that all people, not just our friends and families, receive adequate health care? Important: Make sure that you use a few sentences to lead up to the concluding question. Don’t just throw in a question out of nowhere.

  14. Concluding with a Quotation Apart from what any critic had to say about my writing, I knew I had succeeded where it counted when my mother finished reading my book and gave me her verdict: “So easy to read.” Important: As with the question strategy, you can’t just throw in a quote out of nowhere. You must build up to that quote so that it leaves your reader with a provoking message.

  15. Concluding with a Vivid Image Political language — and with variations this is true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists — is designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to give an appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase — some jackboot, Achilles' heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse — into the dustbin, where it belongs.

  16. Concluding with a Call to Action Do we have cause for hope? Many of my friends are pessimistic when they contemplate the world’s growing population and human demands colliding with shrinking resources. But I draw hope from the knowledge that humanity’s biggest problems today are ones entirely of our own making. Asteroids hurtling at us beyond our control don’t figure high on our list of imminent dangers. To save ourselves, we don’t need new technology: we just need the political will to face up to our problems of population and the environment.

  17. Concluding with a Warning Because propaganda is so effective, it is important to track it down and understand how it is used. We may eventually agree with what the propagandist says because all propaganda isn’t necessarily bad; some advertising, for instance, urges us not to drive drunk, to have regular dental checkups, to contribute to the United Way. Even so, we must be aware that propaganda is being used. Otherwise, we will have consented to handing over our independence, our decision-making ability, and our brains.

  18. Group Writing Exercise Part 1: You will work in groups of two. Exchange your essay with your partner. Summarize your partner’s essay in 4-6 sentences (it’s okay if you go over 6 sentences). Then, paraphrase one BODY paragraph in 3-4 sentences (again, it’s okay if you go over 4 sentences). Do not proceed to part 2 until I say so. Part 2: Share your summary and paraphrase with your partner. You should evaluate your partner’s summary/paraphrase of your own work. In other words, did your partner get the point of your essay/paragraph? If not, this should tell you that you need to make some revisions.