The French Revolution (1789 – 1815) “A world wide revolution”
The Bourbon Monarchy(1589 – 1830) • Henry IV (1589 – 1610) • Louis XIII (1610 – 1643) • Louis XIV (1643 – 1715) • Louis XV (1715 – 1774) • Louis XVI (1774 – 1792) • Louis XVIII (1814 – 1815) & (1815 – 1824) • Charles X (1824 – 1830)
King Louis XVI(1774 – 1792) Who was his wife?
Queen Marie Antoinette What county was she from? What was her eventual nickname? Why did they marry? How many children did they have? How many of their children died before the French Revolution began?
Feudalism U.S. Constitution: Article 1, Section 9: “No title of nobility shall be granted by the U.S.: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of Congress, accept any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.”
French Feudalism French Social Class System Official Name: The Estate SystemSocial Class = Estate • 1st Estate: • Members= clergy / church officials • Population= 0.5% of French Population (100,000) • Land Owned = 10% of French Land • 2nd Estate: • Members = nobility / nobles • Population = 1.5% of French Population (300,000) • Land Owned = 20% of French Land • 3rd Estate: • Members= bourgeoisie / middle class • Population = 98% of French Population (27,000,000) • Land Owned = 70% of French Land
What is the problem? • 1st and 2nd Estate Advantages: (2% of French Population) • Only 2nd Estate members could eventually become 1st Estate Members • Exempt from military service • Paid no taxes • 3rd Estate Disadvantages: (98% of French Population) • Required to serve in the military • Had to pay taxes The Obvious Problem: 98% of the population is being forced to support 2% of the population. Viewing the source of this problem, how is this situation similar to the American Revolution?
The Estates General “French Congress” What– French Legislative (law making) assembly (group) Who – Representatives from all three estates based on the population. Which estate had the most representatives? – 3rd Estate How It Works – An issue is brought up to vote upon and a vote is taken. Voting Process – Each estate gets 1 vote despite the number of people that are representing the estate. What is the problem with this system? Prior to 1789, the Estates General had not met for 175 years.
Estates General Meeting Date: May – June, 1789 Where – Palace of Versailles Last Meeting – 1614 (Louis XIII) Why are they meeting? Process of the Estates General: Each estate brings a cahier (list of complaints). Each complaint is discussed and voted on by all 3 estates.
Estates General Meeting3rd Estate’s Position Main Problem (# 1 Complaint) – Unfair tax system Other Problem (# 2 Complaint) – Voting Process Proposal To Be Voted On – Wanted to base the voting power in the Estates General on the vote of all the representatives in the Estates General, not just on the 3 estates themselves. How did the Estates General vote when both problems were brought up? – No Why? What did the 3rd Estate do?
National Assembly “The Old 3rd Estate” Members of this group (majority) – Members of the 3rd Estate who walked out of the Estates General in disagreement. Other members of this group (minority) – Members of the 1st and 2nd Estate who also walked out of the Estates General in agreement with the 3rd Estate. This group’s claim – This group represents the people of France. This group’s goal – Write a constitution. Original meeting place – Separate room in the Palace of Versailles. How did King Louis XVI feel about this group?
Louis XVI and The National Assembly Louis XVI’s actions towards the National Assembly: Locked them out of their meeting room in the Palace of Versailles.
The Tennis Court Oath June 20, 1789 • The Oath – “Never to separate and to meet wherever the circumstances might require until we have established a sound and just constitution.” • Who took this oath? The National Assembly (old 3rd Estate) • How did King Louis XVI Respond? Called back French army from other countries in preparation to fight them. Whose idea was it to have a meeting at the nearby tennis court?
Raid of the InvalidesJuly 14, 1789 What – French military stockpile Where – Paris Raiders – National Assembly Why– Get weapons in preparation to fight Louis XVI’s army Guards Resistance – NONE (They were outnumbered) What Did The Raiders Get? 10 cannons 28,000 guns NO GUN POWDER!
Storming The BastilleJuly 14, 1789 • What – French fort and prison • Where – Paris • Raiders– 800 members and supporters of the National Assembly (old 3rd Estate) • History’s reason why – It is a sign of French Power • Political prisoners in the Bastille at the start of the raid – 7 • Most famous prisoners the Bastille has held – Voltaire and the “Man in the Iron Mask” • Real reason why – To get gunpowder • Total amount of gunpowder in the Bastille – 250 barrels (25,000 lbs.) • Guard Resistance – High but unsuccessful. They held off the mob for 7 hours, but were • eventually over ran. • Importance– National Assembly now has weapons and ammunition to fight Louis XVI. Main Importance – This event is the official start of the French Revolution
Storming The BastilleJuly 14, 1789 Bastille Day – July 14th French version of Independence Day
Phases of the French Revolution • Phase 1: • National Assembly (1789 – 1791) – Moderate • Phase 2: • Radical Phase (1792 – 1794) – Radical / Reign of Terror • Phase 3: • The Directory (1795 – 1799) – Moderate • Phase 4: • Age of Napoleon (1800 – 1815) – Militant
French Flag “The Tri-Color” King Paris (French People) Paris (French People) Flag’s Meaning – The unity of king and the people. This was a symbol of the French Revolution
Louis XVI’s Meeting with the National Assembly July 16, 1789 Why – To work out the problems between each other. Good meeting? – Very good meeting. Result – France is on the path to getting better.
The Great Fear (1789) • What – Widespread violence towards nobles by members of the 3rd Estate. • What started it? Poor farm harvests in 1788 lead to a famine in 1789. • Sources of Anger: • 1 – Members of the 3rd Estate were starving and the French government was doing nothing. • 2 – 3rd estate members taxes still remained high. Great Fear Incident French store owner refused to lower the prices of bread in his store . He was chased to the top of a church steeple where he was corned by the mob, stabbed to death, then decapitated.
Great Fear (1789) Another Incident One grain (hay) trader, who was possibly planning a counter revolutionary movement, said “the people should just eat hay if they are hungry”. When he was captured, a necklace of thorns was tightly placed around his neck, a handful of thorns was forced into his hands, hay was stuffed in his mouth, and he was hanged on a Paris lamp post. This man’s son-in-law had his heart torn out of his body and was placed in a window of the Hotel de Ville (meeting place of the National Assembly). His head along with his father-in-law’s were placed on pikestaff’s and paraded through the streets of Paris with the carriers frequently putting the heads together making it look as if they were gay lovers.
Great Fear (1789) “The Rumors” Queen Marie Antoinette was plotting to blow up the National Assembly. Foreign countries were working with King Louis XVI to help restore his lost power. The English navy was spotted in the English Channel in preparation for invasion while France is weak. Nobles had left and joined armies of other countries (Spain, Austria, and the Netherlands) in preparation for an attack on weakened France. Importance – The rumors increased the violence and made the Great Fear much worse.
National Assembly Reforms (1789) • Goal – End the chaos caused by the Great Fear • Main Change – Feudalism is abolished • French nobles publicly gave up their land rights and tax rights in an open sessions to the French people. • Problem – These had to be approved by King Louis XVI, which he refused to do. Why did he refuse to approve this change?
Declaration of the Rights of ManAugust 27, 1789 Authors/ Creators – National Assembly
All-Seeing Eye of Providence “The eye of god watching over humankind” Divine Providence - The sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in people's lives and throughout history .
“The Model”Declaration of IndependenceJuly 4, 1776 Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness What movement did the author get these ideas from?
Declaration of the Rights of ManAugust 27, 1789 Liberty, Fraternity, and Equality What had to happen before this document could be accepted as French law? King Louis XVI had to approve this, which he refused to do.
The Man Behind The Movement Ben Franklin 1st U.S. Ambassador to France (1776 – 1785)
Palace of Versailles Where – 12 miles outside of the city limits of Paris Who had this built?
March on Versailles October 5, 1789 • Marchers – 6,000 women and men dressed as women . • What Happened – Marched to the Palace of Versailles demanding to see King Louis XVI. • Chant – “Bread” • Majority of Anger – Directed at Queen Marie Antoinette for lavish spending. • Queen Marie Antionette’s Rumored Saying –“Let them eat cake” • Marcher’s Demands – Ordered the royal family to return to Paris. • Removal – Angry mob physically escorted royal family back to Paris. There were also loads of bread and flour on the wagons during the march. • King’s new “old” home – Tuileries Palace in Paris , which is where the royal family lived before Louis XIV built the Palace if Versailles • Importance – King is now living in Paris and the people do not have to take a long trip if they have some problems they want to get fixed.
Constitution of 1791September 3, 1791Creators – National Assembly • Terms: • Ended Absolute Monarchy that was established under Louis XIV. • Established a Constitutional (Limited) Monarchy • A French legislature (National Assembly) oversees the actions of the Monarch. • The clergy (church officials) are to be elected. • Catholic church is now under the control of France and not Vatican City (Rome). This would be the first of four constitutions written during the French Revolution.
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 • The Plan – Louis XVI would disguised himself and his family as servants who leaves the Tuileries every day. • Bribery Cost – Louis XVI used $600,000 to bride his way out of the Tuileries and past the guards. • Where was he planning to go? – Austria • Why Austria? – His brother-in-law, Leopold II (Marie Antionette’s brother), was the King of Austria. Louis XVI was hoping Leopold II would help him gain back control of France. Why was Louis XVI wanting to leave France?
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 • Louis XVI gets lost? – He is recognized by a person holding a piece of French currency with Louis XIV’s face on it. • The Escort – The people of the village held Louis XVI there and sent word back to Paris that he had been found. Soldiers were sent to the town where they then escorted Louis XVI back to Paris where he would be placed on house arrest in the Tuileries until his execution. How did the people of France view Louis XVI after this?
Louis XVI’s Failed Escape June 20 – 21, 1791 “The Escort Back”
The French Promise • The Promise –“France will help any people or country wanting to overthrow its government if they are unhappy.” • Goal – Spread French Revolution ideas worldwide. (“Worldwide War on Tyranny”) • Europe’s Reaction – Began to hate France. • The Future – Led to future wars between France and many European countries.
France at War (1792 – 1815) • Why – Result of the “French Promise” • French Revolutionary Wars: 1792 – 1802 (Coalition # 1 and Coalition # 2) • Napoleonic Wars: 1804 – 1815 • How did Napoleon finance his wars? Louisiana Purchase and privateers (Acheron) • French Foreign Opponents: • Austria • Prussia • England (U.K.) • Russia • Spain • Italy • Netherlands / Dutch • Holland • French Civil War – France was also in the middle civil war of its own. • Bottom Line – France was a mess!
Declaration of PillnitzAugust 27, 1791 “All European countries should come to the aid of Louis XVI and restore his power as the king of France. Let this declaration be a promise of harm towards France if Louis XVI and his family’s rights are further infringed upon or they are harmed in any way.” The “Declarers” Leopold II Holy Roman Emperor King of Hungary Archduke of Austria King Frederick William II of Prussia
Phase # 2 “The Reign of Terror” – Radical / Crazy Phase 1792 – 1794
Sans Culottes “Those who wear pants” • Who – The poorest members of the former 3rd estate who traditionally wear pants compared to richer members of the former 3rd estate and former members of the 1st and 2nd estate that traditionally wore culottes. • San Culottes Tendencies = Radical • Goal – Make France a republic. • Republic – A government elected by the people and ran by the people. NO KING OR QUEEN. • Division within the Sans Culottes: • Girondins – Wanted to fix the constitutional monarchy. • Jacobins – Wanted no monarchy at all. • How did they come to power? They rose through elections in the National Convention.