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DECOLONIZATION: How did imperialism shape Modern Day Africa?

THE FALL OF GLOBAL IMPERIALISM. DECOLONIZATION: How did imperialism shape Modern Day Africa?. DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA. DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA. After WWII, African nations were not willing to continue being colonized Most African nations gained their independence in the 1960’s

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DECOLONIZATION: How did imperialism shape Modern Day Africa?

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  1. THE FALL OF GLOBAL IMPERIALISM DECOLONIZATION:How did imperialism shape Modern Day Africa?

  2. DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA

  3. DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA • After WWII, African nations were not willing to continue being colonized • Most African nations gained their independence in the 1960’s • Ignored boundaries by imperial powers left Africa with ethnic and cultural conflicts

  4. Ghana (1957) • Pan-Africanism was a philosophy that promoted African awareness and pushed for the betterment of all Africans on the continent • “United States of Africa” • Ghana has shifted from civilian to military rule many times Freedom Now!- KwameNkurmah

  5. Nigeria (1960) • Very populous and wealthy, yet ethnically divided • Yorba ruled and set up a federal system • Igbo take over (martial law) • Hanusa-Fulani over throw IgboCivil War • Military rules throughout the 1970s (economy grew from oil) • 1979 return of civilian rule • 1983Hanusa-Fulani seizes power • 1993 Army dictatorship • 1999first free elections due to AbdulsalamiAbubakar

  6. Kenya (1963) Mau MauOathing Ceremony • British had prized Farmlands in Kenya • Kenyatta and the Mau Mau (separately) forced the British to leave • Kenyatta united ethnic groups and Nairobi flourished • Today, Kenya’s economy suffers, there is political corruption and ethnic conflicts Jomo Kenyatta

  7. The Congo (Zaire 1965-1997) • Belgium exploited the Congo for its resources w/o providing any social services • Mobuto, an army officer, seized power in a bloodless coup due to internal and external conflicts • Mobuto ruled for 32 years- he was overthrown by Laurent Kabila Civil War Mobuto SeseSeko

  8. Algeria (1965) • Algeria: 1 million Europeans • French leaders claimed that Algeria was an integral part of metropolitan France. • The colons constituted a minority to the 9 million indigenous Arabs and Berber peoples. • The Algerian War of Independence • The war dragged on for eight years (1954-1962), at a cost of as many as 300,000 lives. • At home, French society was torn apart. Ahmed Ben Bella- leader of the FLN (National Liberation Front)

  9. Algeria • The negotiations to end the war began only after an insurrection led by colons and army officers had caused the French Fourth Republic to fall in 1958 and brought Charles de Gaulle to power. • By 1962, more than 9/10ths of the European population had departed. Charles De Galle

  10. South Africa • South Africa: 4 million Europeans • Minority white rule (Afrikaners) persisted • After winning the elections of 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party in South Africa enacted an extreme form of racial segregation known as apartheid. • Apartheid laws stripped Africans, Indians, and colored persons (mixed descent) of their few political rights. • Schools segregated; country divided into racial “homelands” • The African National Congress opposed this legislation. • After the Sharpeville massacre of 1960, peaceful protest turned into violent protest. • Nelson Mandela was sentenced to life in prison in 1962. • The West (U.S.) supported South Africa as a bulwark against the spread of communism in Africa.

  11. South Africa • 1994 marked the first universal elections held in South Africa--What does this mean? • F.W.Klerk elected by white minority in 1989 • Goals: Transform South Africa and released Mandela from jail. • Nelson Mandela elected President of South Africa (1994-99) • an anti-apartheid activist • convicted him on charges of sabotage and other crimes against apartheid and imprisoned for 27 years • has helped lead the transition towards multi-racial democracy in South Africa • won the Noble Peace Prize in 1993

  12. DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA • Current Problems: • Unbalanced economies due to: • Cash crops • Poor roads • Few factories • Limited education • Little or no middle class • Militarist dictatorships, democracies have revealed little success • Ethnic divides due to Imperialism

  13. How did imperialism shape Modern Day Africa?

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