Warm Up • Question: After the War of 1812, Americans entered a new era. • What do you think the U.S. felt like after the War of 1812? Why would they feel this way?
Warm Up • Americans were very confident. They had defeated the mighty British Empire twice in recent history. • They also enjoyed a period of calm and unity.
Warm up Question: Who became the 5th President of the United States?
Answer: James Monroe
The American Revolution and the War of 1812 allowed our nation to have a common heritage. We were proud to be Americans. • The Era of Good Feelings
Eventually, Americans started to think the government should take action to increase prosperity in the U.S. • However, each region started wanting different things. • This became known as sectionalism. • The U.S. eventually broke into 3 regions; they were the North, the South, and the West.
The 3 regions of the U.S. disagreed on: • Slavery • Trade restrictions (tariffs) • A second national bank • Internal improvements • Changes made to the U.S. such as new transportation (canals, roads)
The Spokesmen • Three Congressmen started to speak on behalf of their regions: • John C. Calhoun (South) • Daniel Webster (North) • Henry Clay (West)
John C. Calhoun • Spokesperson for the South • Planter in South Carolina • Supported internal improvements, developing industries, and a national bank • At one time Calhoun believed in a strong Federal government; BUT eventually he thought states should hold more power.
Daniel Webster • From Massachusetts • Nationalist • Supported policies that strengthened the nation • Tariff of 1816 (protect U.S. businesses) • “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable.”
Henry Clay • From Kentucky • Supported Western states • Tried to solve Sectional differences • Wanted national unity through compromise (Missouri Compromise-we’ll talk about this later!) • Created the American system • Stimulate growth of U.S. industry • Internal improvements
Warm UpQuestion:What were the four topics that divided the nation at this time?
Slavery • Trade restrictions (tariffs) • A second national bank • Internal improvements
10.2 Dealing With Other Nations
10.2 Notes Complete the chart using the following slides.
Foreign Relations • Relations with Britain: Rush-Bagot Treaty: • Limited number of naval vessels that the U.S. and Britain could have on the Great Lakes. • DISARMAMENT- the removal of weapons Convention of 1818: • Set the Boundary between U.S. and Canada (49th parallel) • Gain right to settle Oregon
Foreign Relations • Relations with Spain: Adams-Onis Treaty: • U.S. gains Florida gives up Spanish Texas • U.S. pays $5 million in “damages” • Land Northwest of 42 parallel • Relations with Europe: Monroe Doctrine: - The U.S. will not interfere with existing European colonies in America - The U.S. will oppose any new European settlements in America! - Key aspect of U.S. foreign policy
Warm up: How did the United States get Florida from the Spanish?
Answer: Spain was losing power over its colonies in the Americas. The Spanish knew the U.S. could easily take the territory over so when the U.S. offered to buy the land Spain agreed. The Adams-Onis Treaty
10.3 The Age of Jackson “Old Hickory”
Election of 1824 Four people ran for president in 1824, including: • John Quincy Adams • Andrew Jackson • Henry Clay • William Crawford • NO candidate won a majority of electoral votes • Jackson won plurality (The largest single share) • Election had to be decided in the House of Representatives • Speaker of the House Henry Clay made a “corrupt bargain” with J.Q. Adams. Adams became president. Clay became Sec. of State • FYI: Another political party developed…the Anti- Jacksons (called the Whigs)
J. Q. Adams’ Presidency • He acted against popular opinion • Wanted: • Strong Navy • Scientific expeditions in the west • Federal control of the economy • This terrified the majority of people who believed that the states’ should have more power. • Sectionalism continued to be a problem in the U.S.
The Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson vs. John Quincy Adams (Again!)
The race for the White House in 1828 pitted incumbent John Quincy Adams against Andrew Jackson. The beginning of the 1828 campaign revealed little difference between the two candidates on the major political issues of the day. It became obvious that the race would be a personality contest and that Jackson had the clear lead. Faced with this reality, the Adams camp injected scandal into their campaign.
Adams's supporters hurled charges adultery, gambling, murder, and corruption against Jackson. Jackson’s supporters retaliated with charges of adultery against Adams and his wife. The campaign descended into a mudslinging contest. Things became so mean that Jackson believed that Adams’ attack killed his wife. Jackson was America's first "Frontier President" – the first president who did not come from the nation’s east-coast elite. His victory was seen as a triumph for the common man and for democracy. The celebration of his inauguration was an opportunity for America’s ordinary citizen to rejoice. Read “A Historical Perspective” (handout)
Mudslinging John Quincy Adams: Campaign Song • According to the song, what will happen is John Quincy Adams is not elected?
Outcome of 1828 Election • Jackson won by a landslide • 1st frontier president
Jackson’s Legacy Watch the video about how Andrew Jackson changed the American Presidency.
Election Changes • Jacksonian Democracy • Jackson’s supporters wanted to make the voting system more democratic: • Eliminated the caucus system • Political candidates chosen by Congressmen • Created nominating conventions • Delegates selected a party’s candidate based on the people’s vote
Changes in Voting • What is suffrage? • The right to vote • Who was able to vote before 1815? • White men who owned property or paid taxes • In the 1820’s laws were loosened • Many states overlooked the property ownership requirement and suffrage spread.
Spoils System • “To the victory go the spoils…” • Jackson replaced some government officials with his campaign supporters. • He believed that he was expanding democracy by these actions.
Warm Up The Election of 1828 was vicious. What tactic was used in the 1828 election?
Warm Up Mudslinging-attempts to ruin an opponent’s reputation with insults.
10.4 Indian Removal
What was Indian Removal? • A plan carried out by President Jackson to help the U.S. expand westward • Remove Native Americans from land east of the Mississippi River • Relocate them to the “Indian Territory”—land west of the Mississippi River, present day Oklahoma • Unfair to Natives • Lots of suffering and thousands died along the trips westward
Native Americans • (led by Black Hawk)-chief of the Sauk, Fox, and Kickapoo tribes • VS. • Americans Who was involved? Black Hawk
When did the Black Hawk War occur? April-August ,1832
Where did the Black Hawk War occur? Illinois and Wisconsin (then part of Michigan Territory)
What Happened? General Henry Atkinson The Native Americans had land in Illinois and Wisconsin. In the 1820’s, the U.S. took it away. They forced Black Hawk’s people to sign treaties giving up their land. Black Hawk had already fought against the Americans in the War of 1812. Now, as white settlers began plowing land that was sacred to Native Americans, he was ready to fight again. His forces began raiding outlying white settlements. U.S. troops under General Henry Atkinson pursued the Sauk and Fox across northern Illinois and into Wisconsin. They caught up with them where the Bax Axe River flows into the Mississippi. Black Hawk surrendered, but Akinson’s men opened fire anyway, killing 200 women, children and warriors. Black Hawk was captured and imprisoned for a year. Then he rejoined the remnants of his tribe on a reservation in Iowa. It was the last Indian war east of the Mississippi River.
Did you know… Abraham Lincoln enlisted in an Illinois militia unit during the Black Hawk War. He became a captain, but did not see action. Jefferson Davis (Confederate President) Also fought in the war.
= Indian Removal Act Congress paid Indians for their land