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A Changing Nation

A Changing Nation

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A Changing Nation

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  1. A Changing Nation The United States’ Awkward Teenage Years

  2. Learning Targets • Identify the political issues that defined the “Era of Good Feelings” • Analyze the ways the federal government grew in prominence during the “Era of Good Feelings” • Interpret the impact of the Monroe Doctrine on American foreign policy during the 19th century and beyond

  3. The Era of Good Feelings

  4. The Era of Good Feelings Free Hugs?!? • James Monroe’s Administration (Republican) • Federalist Party all but dies • Post War of 1812; nationalism and unity • Regions of the US begin demanding the federal government step in to promote economic prosperity James Monroe 5th President of USA

  5. Presidential Election: 1816

  6. Presidential Election: 1820 One rogue elector: Plummer from NH

  7. Daniel Webster: The Northeast We want to promote manufacturing & industry, we support a national tariff. We are very ANTI-slavery

  8. John C. Calhoun: The South We want to maintain states’ rights, promote farming, avoid a national tariff, and make sure slavery is never abolished! …I would also like people to stop saying I look like Sam the Eagle. I’m no muppet!

  9. Henry Clay: The West We want better roads and canals! Government needs to work on building up infrastructure of newly acquired lands And Snuggies! It gets cold on the frontier

  10. Economic Woes • The charter for the First Bank ran out in 1811 • Economy suffers; Congress establishes Second Bank of the US in 1816 • Britain begins dumping • Selling goods in another country below market price to drive American businesses in debt • Congress responds with the Tariff of 1816 • Tax on foreign textiles, iron, leather goods, paper South North

  11. How a Tariff Works

  12. Foreign Relations: Spain • Spain still controls Florida • Problem: escape slaves from Georgia & Alabama often flee to Florida and join Seminole tribes • Solution: US government sends Andrew Jackson into Florida to recapture escape slaves • Raids Spanish towns and governor flees • Result: Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 • Spain cedes Florida to US

  13. Review • Why was Monroe’s presidency referred to as the “Era of Good Feelings”? • Who were the leading regional politicians (Northeast, South, West)? And what did each region want from the federal government? • What economic problems plagued the US following the War of 1812? • What did the Adams-Onis Treaty do?

  14. Jackson Lays the Smack Down in Florida

  15. Foreign Relations: Latin America • Latin Americans inspired by American & French Revolutions • Spain unable to control her colonies: • Mexico, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, United Provinces of Latin America, Brazil (Portugal) • US Response: Monroe Doctrine (1823)

  16. The Monroe Doctrine • France & Russia indicate they will help Spain regain these territories • US: The US would NOT allow European nations to create American colonies or to interfere with the free nations of Latin America • Any action to do so would be “dangerous to our peace and safety”

  17. Impact of the Monroe Doctrine I don’t always overthrow republics, but when I do, I like to wear my banana suit! • 1842 - President Tyler warns Britain to stay out of Hawaii…we begin the process of staging a coup and annexing the islands…Thanks Dole

  18. Impact of the Monroe Doctrine • 1898 – President McKinley uses his power to push Spain from her colonies in the Spanish American War…we gain Guam, the Philippines, Puerto Rico (Cuba = protectorate)

  19. Impact of the Monroe Doctrine • 1904 – Roosevelt Corollary added; states we will respond with military force if Europe gets involved in Latin America

  20. Impact of the Monroe Doctrine • 1962: President Kennedy & the Cuban Missile Crisis; US threatens intervention when Soviets become involved in Cuba

  21. Impact of the Monroe Doctrine • 1985: President Reagan & the Iran Contra Affair; US funds a group of revolutionaries (the Sandinistas) to overthrow Communist leaders using illegal weapons sales to Iran

  22. The Disputed Election of 1824 • John Quincy Adams • New England (Secretary of State) • Federalist ideals • Henry Clay • West (Speaker of House) • “War Hawk” • Andrew Jackson • West (Military hero) • Common Man • William Crawford • South (Secretary of Treasury)

  23. Review • What did the Monroe Doctrine say? • How did the Monroe Doctrine inform American foreign policy up through the 20th century? • What was the actual outcome of the Election of 1824 ? • What was the Corrupt Bargain?

  24. Jackson won the most popular votes 153,544 (Adams 108,740) 43% Gained the most electoral votes No candidate gained the majority needed 131 (today’s magic #?) Constitution states that the vote goes to the House of Representatives Election of 1824

  25. The Corrupt Bargain • Henry Clay (Speaker of the House) influenced members of the House to vote for Adam’s • Adams was elected president • Clay was appointed Secretary of State • Jackson was furious and began campaigning for the next election • Started the entire concept of a campaigning process

  26. "I cannot believe that killing 2,500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the various, difficult, and complicated duties of the Chief Magistracy." Clay says of Jackson

  27. Presidency Decided by the House • Adams was elected President on February 9, 1825, on the first ballot with 13 states, followed by Jackson with 7, and Crawford with 4.

  28. All thanks to Andrew Jackson!

  29. Campaign of 1828 • Adams: Jackson married his wife Rachel while she was still married! • Jackson: Adams installed a gambling parlor in the White House • Adams: Attacked Jackson for his court martial and execution of deserters, massacres of Indian villages, and his habit of dueling.

  30. John Quincy Adams • Wanted federal government to play a larger role in the economy • Pay for new roads & canals • Build a national university • Build an observatory • Promote farming, manufacturing, science and arts • Americans were fearful that government would become too powerful; only serves one term…

  31. New Views on Democracy • Suffrage extended to ALL white men • Property requirement dropped • No African Americans or women • Presidential electors no longer chosen by state legislators, instead chosen by voters

  32. Voting Requirements

  33. Voter Turn Out: 1820-1860

  34. Party Politics • First Party System – 1792-1824 • Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans • Second Party System – 1824-1850 • Whigs vs. Democrats • Third Party System – 1854-mid-1890s • Democrats vs. Republicans (Lincoln) • Fourth Party System – 1896-1932 • The Progressive Era • Fifth Party System – 1933-???

  35. The Second Rise of the American Political Party • Era of Good Feelings – Federalists disappear • Election of 1828: The Democratic Republican Party splits • Democrats (Jackson) • Strength of President over Congress • Favored expansion west • Expanded suffrage • For the common man • Frontier farmers • Factory workers in the east • Whigs (Adams) • Supremacy of Congress over the presidency • Supported by northern industrialists • Tariff • Government funded infrastructure projects • Great emphasis on education

  36. Election of 1828

  37. The New “Jackson Coalition” • Nicknamed “Old Hickory” • Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. • His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” • Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.

  38. The Reign of King Mob

  39. The Spoils System • The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs • Jackson seldom met with his advisors (cabinet) • Met with newspaper editors and democratic leaders as his “unofficial” cabinet • Kitchen cabinet “To the victor belong the spoils” -Andrew Jackson

  40. Bank of the United States Organized by Congress Run by private banker Nicholas Biddle Controlled loans made by state banks = powerful Why did Jackson dislike the bank? Limited the amount of loans to merchants and farmers Favored wealthy Unconstitutional ? Undemocratic ? War with the Bank Jackson’s ultimate plan was to destroy the Bank of the United States

  41. Nicholas Biddle

  42. The Monster is Destroyed • Jackson’s plan: Veto the renewal of the Bank of the U.S. • Whigs’ plan: Renew charter, which will lead to a Jackson Veto, which will upset Americans, which will lead to a Jackson loss in1832 • What really happened: Renew charter, which led to a Jackson veto…But, Jackson was re-elected • The Second Bank dies • All federal money was put into pet banks • State banks • Run by Jackson’s friends

  43. Ironically, Jackson is on a US Bank Note!