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Cysteine PowerPoint Presentation

Cysteine

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Cysteine

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  1. Cysteine

  2. SULFUR CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS SMELLY STUFF

  3. THIOLS

  4. DEFINITION • Organic compounds having SH or Sulfhydryl functional group with strong and disagreeable odors. • “ Also called mercaptans “ • Derivatives of hydrogen sulfide.

  5. HiStory

  6. History • In 1834, W. C. Zeise discovered THIOLS. • ZEISE named THIOLS as MERCAPTANS because they readily react with mercury to form an insoluble salt. • The term MERCAPTAN comes from the Latinmercurius captans, meaning 'laying hold of mercury,' because the –SH group binds tightly to the element mercury.

  7. USes

  8. CH3 – SH methanethiol IUPAC methyl mercaptan COMMON CH3CH2 – SH ethanethiol IUPAC ethyl mercaptan COMMON

  9. dibutylaminotriazinethiol

  10. Glutathione

  11. 2-amino-5-{[2-[(carboxymethyl)amino]-1-(mercaptomethyl)-2-oxoethyl]amino}-5-oxopentanoic acid

  12. CH3CH2CH2 – SH propanethiol Lachcrymator Substances that will make our eyes to tear………………………………

  13. CH2 ═ CH – CH2 – SH 2 – propene – 1 – thiol CH2 ═ CH – S – CH ═ CH2 Divinyl sulfide

  14. CH3 CH3 –CH – CH2 – CH2 – SH 3 – methyl – 1 – butanethiol H CH2 – SH C ═ C H 3HC Trans – 2 – butene – 1 – thiol

  15. Physical Properties

  16. Physical Properties • THIOLS tend to be a clear liquid or white crystalline form. • Characteristic of other sulfur-containing compounds, THIOLS have a stench that smells similar to rotten eggs. • The odor of THIOLS is often strong and repulsive, particularly for those of low molecular weight. • THIOLS show little association by hydrogen bonding. • They have lower boiling points • Less soluble in water and other polar solvents than alcohols of similar molecular weight.

  17. Nomenclature

  18. NOMENCLATURE OF THIOLS • When a thiol group is a substituent on an ALKANE, there are several ways of naming the resulting THIOL: • The preferred method (used by the IUPAC) is to add the suffix -thiol to the name of the alkane. • The common name is obtained by writing the alkyl group name followed by the word mercaptan.

  19. EXAMPLEs: CH3 – SH methanethiol CH3 – CH2 – SH ethanethiol CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – SH propanethiol

  20. EXAMPLE: OH CH3 – CH2 – C – CH2 – CH2 – SH CH3 3 - hydroxy – 3- methyl – 1 – pentanethiol

  21. EXAMPLE: SH cyclohexanethiol CH2═ CH – CH2 – CH2 – SH 3 – butene – 1 - thiol

  22. EXAMPLE: 1 – cyclobutene – 1 - thiol SH NO2 CH2═ CH – C – C ≡ CH SH (3 – nitro – 1 – penten – 4 – yne) 3 - thiol

  23. EXAMPLE: SH thiophene SH O – hydroxythiophene OH

  24. chemical Properties

  25. oXidation reaction General formula (O) Thiol + Thiol ------------ Disulfide + Water Pt/Ni EXAMPLE: (O) CH3– CH2 – SH + HS – 2HC – CH3 -------- CH3CH2 – S – S – 2HCCH3 + H2O Pt/Ni diethyl disulfide

  26. EXAMPLE: SH S – S – CH3 (O) H2O + HS – CH3 --- Pt/Ni cyclopentylmethyl disulfide

  27. disulfides

  28. DEFINITION Organic compounds containing – S–S – functional group.

  29. Nomenclature

  30. EXAMPLE: CH3 – CH2 – CH2 – S – S – CH2 – CH3 ethylpropyl disulfide CH3 CH3 CH3 – CH – S – S – HC – CH3 diisopropyl disulfide

  31. EXAMPLE: S S cyclohexylphenyl disulfide S S NO2 4 - nitrodiphenyl disulfide

  32. chemical Properties

  33. reduction reaction General formula Disulfides + Hydrogen --------→ 2 Thiols Pt/Ni EXAMPLE: SH H – H 2 Pt/Ni S S + H2 -------→

  34. EXAMPLE: H – H CH3 Pt/Ni + H2 -------→ 2 CH3 – CH – S – S – HC – CH3 HS – HC – CH3 CH3 CH3 SH H – H Pt/Ni S S CH3 + H2 -------→ + CH3SH Thiophene & methanethiol

  35. sulfides

  36. DEFINITION • Sulfur analogs of ETHER containing the – S – functional group and they are name by using the word SULFIDE to show the presence of the - S – group.

  37. Nomenclature

  38. EXAMPLE: CH3 – CH2 – CH2–S – CH2 – CH3 ethylpropyl sulfide S (CH2)3 – CH3 butylcyclobutyl sulfide

  39. EXAMPLE: S (CH2)5 – CH3 4 – hexyldiphenyl sulfide S dicyclopropyl sulfide

  40. fin