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Psychological stress

Psychological stress

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Psychological stress

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  1. Psychological stress Institute of medical psychology Panfang

  2. Psychological stress The definition of stress Canon Selye H,1907-1982 general adaptation syndrome alarm resistance exhaustion

  3. The development of definition of stress Stressor :应激是引起机体发生应激反应的刺激物。 Response:应激是机体对有害刺激的反应。 Interaction:应激是应激源和应激反应的中间变量。

  4. Psychological stress 心理应激是个体在觉察需求与满足需求的能力不平衡时倾向与通过整体心理和生理反应表现出来的多因素作用的适应过程。 过程:适应和不适应过程 结果:适应的和不适应的 应激源:生物、心理、社会等 应激反应:心理、生理、行为 认知评价:起重要作用

  5. Psychological stress The process of stress 认知评价 应对方式 心理反应 行为反应 生理反应 生活事件 Physiological interaction 心理疾病 躯体疾病 社会支持 个性特征

  6. stressor 应激源的概念:应激源是造成心理应激并可能导致躯体和心理损伤的刺激物。

  7. The types of stressors 按应激源的属性分类: 1.躯体性应激源 physical stressor 2.心理性应激源 psychological stressor 3.社会性应激源 social stressor 4.文化性应激源 cultural stressor

  8. The types of stressors 按事件的现象学分类 1.工作问题 2.恋爱、婚姻、家庭问题 3.人际关系问题 4.经济问题 5.个人健康问题 6.自我实现和自尊方面 7.喜庆事件

  9. The types of stressors 按事件对个体的影响分 1.正性生活事件positive live events 2.负性生活事件negative events

  10. The types of stressors 按事件的主客观属性分 1.客观事件 objective events 2.主观事件 subjective events

  11. The research of stressor Holmes and Rahe (1976) 5000subjects Social Readjustment Rating Scale, SRRS, Life Change Unite,LCU <150LCU:0% 150-300LCU: 50% >300:86% 应激性生活事件的量化研究

  12. The research of stressor negative, unpredictable, persistant, Un-control (模拟现实生活中的应激如:束缚、孤养、噪音、拥挤等)。

  13. Psychological response of stress 1.Excessive and compulsive behaviors, such as nail biting, overeating,pacing,picking and talking. 2.Illogical and non-coherent thinking, as evidenced by memory loss,repetitive thoughts,reduced ability to solve day to day problems. 3.negative emotion, such as anger,anxiety, depression,guilt,or shame.

  14. Behavior response of stress 1.escape or avoidance 2.regression or dependence 3.hostility or attack 4.helplessness and self-pity 5.drug addiction

  15. physiological response According to Selye’s and Cannon : the response of stress is fight and flight response fight---confrontation flight---escape

  16. Fight-flight response (reflection)

  17. Physiological response of stress The endocrine Response: Our endocrine system secretes hormones directly into our bloodstream via a series of glands. Adrenal glands:Adrenal medulla(inner cove)-----adrenaline-----increase the activity level of our heart, liver, and muscles. Adrenal cortex(outer shell)----corticosteroids-----reduce inflammation

  18. Physiological response of stress

  19. Physiological response of stress The Immune Response Immuno-suppressants: our bodies release natural suppressants when under stress. Those suppressants decrease the efficiency of our immune system.

  20. Stress system (interaction of physiology) 下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺皮质系统 蓝斑-交感-肾上腺髓质系统 导致糖皮质激素和盐皮质激素分泌增加和 交感神经功能亢进。

  21. The interaction of psychology Cognitive appraisal: means the ideas of the nature , intensity , persistence time and danger about stressor. There are two types of cognitive appraisal : First cognitive appraisal and second Cognitive appraisal

  22. Cognitive appraisal adaptation First appraisal event Problem focus Second appraisal Emotion focus

  23. Coping What is coping? Characteristic way of one handle with stress. Types of coping: Coping can be divided into two types. problem solving and emotional coping

  24. Types of coping Problem solving: attempts to change the conditions that produce stress. eg. reduce the tension of noise, study hard, and take rest. Emotional coping: altering of oneself to reduce tress. eg: cry, doing excise and relax.

  25. The study of coping The study of coping style positive and negative coping The study of coping and stress coping styles effect the response of stress The study of coping theory

  26. Defense mechanism The definition of Defense mechanism The kind of Defense mechanism denial,regression,fantasy,displacement,rationalization,reaction formation,etc.

  27. Personality traits and vulnerability to stress 1.Anxiety: a fear response to a perceived future threat 2.Depression:a mood disorder characterized by excessive sadness 3.Learned helplessness:Occurs when a person has learned to be helpless in one situation and transfers that appraisal to a new situation in which an adequate response is possible.

  28. Personality traits and vulnerability to stress 4.Hostility: a state of antagonism or enmity 5. Self-absorbed: excessively engrosses in one’s self or one’s affairs. 6.Vigilance:alert watchfulness

  29. Personality Types and Vulnerability Type A: a personality type characterized by impatience and work addiction; thought susceptible to premature heart disorders. Type B: personality type characterized by patience,trust, good nature,and an easy going style that is thought to protect them against premature heart disorders.

  30. The urgent behavior of type A personality based on a set of beliefs and fears, many of which are irrational Beliefs: 1.My self-esteem is based on my material accomplishments. 2.I am worthless if I do not achieve worldly success. 3.There are no universal moral principles. 4. All human and natural resources are limited

  31. The urgent behavior of type A personality based on a set of beliefs and fears, many of which are irrational Fears: 1.Good may not prevail over evil; there fore, I cannot expect justice in this world. 2.I may not get my fair share of worldly good. 3.A lack of success will cause me to be judged as worthless.

  32. Hardy personality There are some personality traits that make it easier for a person to handle stress

  33. Hardy personality study Kobasa (1979)studied two groups of executives who had all experienced stressful life events within the past 3 years. Those in one group had become physically ill following the events,while the other had not.

  34. Hardy personality study The hardy excutives possessed three characteristics that the others did not: 1.They had a great feeling of control; 2.They had a strong sense of commitment to specific goals in their lives; 3.They viewed change as a challenge rather than as a threat.

  35. The good way to copy with stress The good way to copy with stress Rethink Reduce Relax Release

  36. Rethink the value of stress thing Normally we think or decided the thing is bad or not bad to us at first, and then we are in state of stress. Rethinking means that not every thing is all good or bad. Going to abroad to study is a good thing,but you had to adapt to everything. Having no opportunity to abroad is a bad thing,but you can live with your family.

  37. How to reduce the response of stress Knowing when the stressful thing will come(the ability of forecasting). Sense of control(control the stressful situation). Getting social support. Knowing how long is the stressful thing existing.

  38. How to relax the tense of stress Walking Running Swimming Singing

  39. How to release the negative emotion To talk to you friends Cry Going to a trip

  40. Thank you very much! Please study the social support after class.