Chemistry Review Section 2.1 and 2.2
‘chemistry’ in LIFE • A-lkaline, alkaline earth, atoms, atomic number, atomic mass, actinoid, Anions • B-oron, basic, bonds, BOHR • C-ombine, chemical reaction, chemical bonds, chart, covalent bonds, compounds, Cations • D-ioxide, ‘di’atomic, Dalton • E-lectrons, electron cloud, elements • F-lorine, flora carbons, family • G-roup, gold • H-ydrogen, hydrogen bonds • I-ons, ionic bond, ISOTOPE • J- Iodine • K-Potassium • L-itium, lanthanoid • M-etals, magnesium, mercury, Mendeleev, molecule, metalloids • N-eutrons, negative, nucleus, noble gases, neutral, non-metals, neon, nitrogen • O-xygen, oxide, oxygen group, oxidation, • P-eriodic table, protrons, positive, period • Q- Quark • R-ow, radio active, Rutherford, • S-odium, silicone, ‘shell’, symbol • T-itanium, transition metals , Thompson • U-ranium • V-alence • W- Tungsten • X-enon • Y- Yttrium • Z-inc, zigzag
Keystone AnChORS • BIO.A.2.1.1 Describe the unique properties of water and how these properties support life on Earth • (e.g., freezing point, high specific heat, cohesion).
Vocabulary • Atom • Proton • Neutron • Electron • Ionic Bond • Covalent Bond • Hydrogen Bond • Molecule • CHOPSN • Cohesion • Adhesion • Specific heat • Acid • Base • Solute • Solvent
Section 2.1 Atoms, Ions, and Molecules--Objectives • Living things consist of atoms of different elements • Ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons • Atoms share pairs of electrons in covalent bonds
Type I Response Box 1 List as many ‘points’ that pop into your head when you see this table. DO NOT LIST INDIVIDUAL ELEMENTS OR SPECIFIC NUMBERS.
The atom • The is the smallest basic unit of matter • Atoms are teeny tiny atom How Small Are Atoms?
The atom • There are three parts of a an atom proton neutron electron
Elements element atom • An is one particular type of , and it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means • Gold • Aluminum • Helium
Key Elements • In biology, there are SIX very important elements • ________ • Hydrogen • _________ • Phosphorus • Sulfur • ________ carbon CHOPSN oxygen nitrogen ELEMENTS OF LIFE
WHICH ELEMENT IS IT? How are elements different • The number of protons determines the of an element • Carbon: 6 protons • Oxygen: 8 protons • The number of determines the property of an element • Carbon: 6 electrons, 4 on OUTSIDE • Oxygen: 8 electrons, 6 on OUTSIDE identity HOW DOES IT ACT? electrons
Response Box 2 Type I DRAW THE DIAGRAM AND FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS BELOW. Label the diagram with Protons Neutrons Electrons Then, determine the name of the element by writing the name ABOVE the diagram. In at least two sentences, describe how you determined the identity of the atom. Electrons(-) Neutrons Protons(+)
Lonely Atoms • Atoms rarely are found alone in nature • They will do ANYTHING to get to electrons on the outside • Steal • Dump • Share 8
Are these atoms happy?The atoms shown are in their neutral state…1) Determine the name of each atom and write its name on the line provided. 2) Determine if the valance layer of each atom is full. Yes for full / no for not full HELIUM ARGON OXYGEN ________________ ________________ ________________ Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No NEON SODIUM ALUMINUM ________________ ________________ ________________ Yes / No Yes / No Yes / No
Response Box 3 Type I Think about the 4 elements that make up the MAJORITY of living things. List them and then describe how likely they are to bond with other elements. (Are they likely to give electrons away or take them from other elements?) C H O N 4 valence electrons. Likely to bond in a VARIETY of ways 1 valence electrons. Likely to bond or ‘dump’ electron 6 valence electrons. Likely to bond to gain 2 electrons 5 valence electrons. Likely to bond to gain 3 electrons
Compounds • A compound is a substance made of atoms of different bonded together • Result of sharing, stealing, or dumping electrons • Atoms bonded in a specific ratio elements
Response Box 4 Type I Organize the parts from smallest to largest Neutron, Atom, Electron, Proton, Compound, Element, Electron, Proton/Neutron, Atom, Element, Compound
CARBON Carbon Compounds bonds • Carbon can form many various __________ to form • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Nucleic acids • Lipids Crash Course - Carbon
Ionic Bond Ionic bonds • __________________ are formed through the electrical force between oppositely charged ions • Opposites attract! • Ex: Salt aka sodium chloride (NaCl) • Positive sodium (Na+) • Negative chloride (Cl-)
Ions • Ions are atoms that have gained or lost one or more . • Results in a change in electrical charge • Gain e- becomes ________________ • Lose e- becomes ________________ electrons negative positive
Covalent Bond • Not all atoms easily gain or lose their electrons! • Some atoms ___________ their electrons instead! • _____________ Bond: forms when atoms share a pair of electrons • Usually a very strong bond • Atoms may have several covalent bonds to share several electrons share Covalent
Covalent Bond, cont. • Molecule: two or more atoms held together by bonds • Ex: carbon dioxide (CO2) • Carbon atoms needs 4 electrons to fill outer level, oxygen needs two • Carbon shares with 2 oxygen! covalent
Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds
Word Bank for Venn Diagram Created by electrons Dump/Steal Electrons Share Electrons Fill out shell Change Chemical Properties Stronger Bonds CO2 H2O Both are Bonds Opposites attract NaCl Not as Strong as Covalent Form Compounds
Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Created by electrons Share Electrons Dump/Steal Electrons Fill out shell Opposites attract Both are Bonds CO2 H2O NaCl Form Compounds Stronger Bonds Not as Strong as Covalent Change Chemical Properties
SECTION 2.1 REVIEW • What distinguishes one element from another? • 2. Describe the formation of an ionic compound. • 3. What is the difference between and ionic bond and a covalent bond? • 4. How does a molecule differ from an atom?
Section 2.2 Properties of Water--Objectives • Life depends on hydrogen bonds in water. • Many compounds dissolve in water. • Some compounds form acids or bases. Crash Course - Water
THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER CELLS • Organisms’ bodies, (their _____________), • are made up of mostly ____________________ • The water in cells gives the cell _______________ • and ___________________ materials within • organisms. • All of the processes necessary for an • organism’s life take place within the • ______________________________ of the cell WATER STRUCTURE TRANSPORTS WATERY ENVIRONMENT
PROPERTIES RELATED TO HYDROGEN BONDS • ______________________ • 2. ______________________ • 3. ______________________ • HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT • 2. COHESION • 3. ADHESION
Negative Charge HYDROGEN BONDS O POLAR • Water is a “______________” molecule • Form when atoms in a molecule have ____________ pulls on the _____________ they share. • Opposite charges of polar molecules can interact to form ____________________ bonds. • An attraction between a slightly _______________ hydrogen atom and a slightly ______________ atom. • (Usually _______________________________) • Hydrogen bonds are part of the structures of _______________ and of ______________ UNEQUAL H H ELECTRONS Positive Charge Positive Charge HYDROGEN Ted - water Shared Electrons POSITIVE NEGATIVE OXYGEN OR NITROGEN PROTEINS DNA Polarity Makes Water Behave Strangely
HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT HIGH SPECIFIC HEAT • Hydrogen bonds give water an abnormally ____________________________. • Water __________________ changes in temperature because it must _____________ more ____________________ to increase in temperature. RESISTS Absorb heat energy
COHESION Cohesion: the attraction among __________________ of the same substance. Cohesion from hydrogen bonds makes water molecules _____________________. Cohesion produces __________________, ( “skin on water” ) MOLECULES STICK TOGETHER SURFACE TENSION
Capillary Action ADHESION Adhesion: the attraction among __________________ of ______________ substances. For example, water molecules stick to other things. Water in a test tube, (water is attracted to the ____________) MOLECULES DIFFERENT ? GLASS
Type ii • How does water get to the leaves in the tops of the tallest trees against the force of gravity. Be sure to describe the type of molecules involved and name ALL of the properties of water that allow this phenomenon to occur. CAPILLARY ACTION is the process where water climbs up plants against gravity due to the cohesive and adhesive properties of water. Water is a polar molecule, meaning it has opposite charges at the molecule’s poles. In the ground, water ‘clumps’ together because the water molecules are attracted to each other because of their opposite charges. This attraction is known as COHESION. The bonds that are formed between polar molecules are called HYDROGEN BONDS. Water is also attracted to the cells of the plants because the plant cells are polar as well. The attraction between two different molecules, (water and plant), is called ADHESION. Once again, hydrogen bonds are formed between the plant cells and the water molecules. Hence, the water ‘climbs’ up the plant because of the attraction to the plant cells and water ‘flows’ up the tree because the hydrogen bonds between the water molecules ‘pull’ each other up the plant until they escape the leaves through evaporation,
Universal Solvent Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground, the air, or THROUGH OUR BODIES, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients. WHY? __________________________________________ IT’S POLARITY What needs to be dissolved in the body? Sugar Salt Food
TYPE I • Describe the 3 unique properties of water and how they support life on Earth.
Materials such as ________________ and ____________ cannot be transported form one part of an organism to another unless they are dissolved in blood, plant sap, or other water based fluids. ______________: Mixture of a substance that is the same throughout. ___________: Substance that is present in the greater amount and dissolves another substance. ___________: Substance that dissolves in a solvent. MOLECULES DISSOLVE IN WATER SUGARS OXYGEN SOLUTION SOLVENT SOLUTE
ACIDS AND BASES Some compounds form ______________ or _____________ because they _______________ into _______________ when they dissolve in ___________. BASE: Compounds that release OH- ions from a solution ACIDS BASES BREAK UP IONS WATER ACID: Compounds that release a proton - a hydrogen ion(H+) – when it dissolves in water
TYPE I • Draw 5 molecules of water. • Show-with labels-the charges and hydrogen bonds between molecules • In your drawing, demonstrate why one side is positive and the other is negative.
SECTION 2.2 REVIEW • How do polar molecules form hydrogen bonds? • 2. What determines whether a compound will dissolve in water? • 3. Compare acids and bases. • 4. How do polar molecules differ from non-polar molecules? How does this difference affect their interactions? • 5. Describe an example of cohesion or adhesion that youmight observe during your daily life.
How do we get to “macro” in macromolecules? A detailed look at the process of polymerization
Keystone AnChORS • BIO.A.2.2.1 Explain how carbon is uniquely suited to form biological macromolecules. BIO.A.2.2.2 Describe how biological macromolecules form from monomers. BIO.A.2.2.3 Compare the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in organisms • BIO.A.2.3.1 Describe the role of an enzyme as a catalyst in regulating a specific biochemical reaction. • BIO.A.2.3.2 Explain how factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function
Vocabulary • ATP • Carbohydrates • Catalyst • Dehydration synthesis • Hydrolysis • lipid • Monomer • Nucleic acid • Polymer • Polymerization • Product • Protein • Reactant
CARBOHYDRATES CARBON WATER CH2O THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE “POLYMER”
POLYMERIZATION MANY PROCESS THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE “POLYMER”
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS PUT TOGETHER PROCESS WATER UNDO THE PROCESS OF FORMING A MACROMOLECULE “POLYMER”
Vocabulary • Monomer- one molecule • Nucleic acid- genetic information • Polymer- many molecules, (macromolecules) • Polymerization- process of taking monomers and making polymers • Product- outcome/result of a chemical reaction • Protein- polymer made up of amino acids • Reactant- parts involved in a chemical reaction • ATP- ENERGY molecule needed by body cells • Carbohydrates-molecules made up carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (hydrates) • Catalyst-start chemical reactions and lowers the amount of energy needed to initiate reaction • Dehydration synthesis- putting something together by removing water • Hydrolysis- pulling something apart by adding water • Lipid- fattymolecule
Polymerization polymers • Building large molecules (_________) from smaller ones (__________) monomers • Several step process ALL KINDS OF POLYMERS
POLYMER OR MONOMER • Polymer or Monomer?