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# Extra Learning

Extra Learning. Li, Jialong 2011-5-10. Contents. Banking System Financial Policy Financial Control International Settlement Financial Markets Official Record of International Business. Banking System. 1. Functions of Central Bank (the Bank of England) (1A) 1) Central bank

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## Extra Learning

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1. Extra Learning Li, Jialong 2011-5-10

2. Contents • Banking System • Financial Policy • Financial Control • International Settlement • Financial Markets • Official Record of International Business

3. Banking System 1. Functions of Central Bank (the Bank of England) (1A) 1) Central bank 2) Bankers’ bank 3) Lender of last resort 4) Market intervention 5) International role 6) Domestic supervisory responsibilities

4. Banking System 2. The Federal Reserve System (U.S.) • The three benefits of member-banks in the Federal Reserve System (1B) 1) Check clearance 2) Electronic Fund Transfer 3) Borrowing Ability

5. Financial Policy 1. FISCAL POLICY Government revenue ---- Tax and tariff (income, change tax’s rate) Government expenditure ---- Government Budget (budget deficit) Government borrowing ---- Government Bonds

6. Financial Policy 2. MONETARY POLICY (1) Discount Rate (Interest Rate) (2C): • The equation or formula: • Simple interest: I = P x R x T (Principal amount, interest rate and time usually year) • Less than a year: I = P x R x Days/360 • Compound interest: FT = P (1+R)T ( F—the future total repayment value of the loan) (2) Reserve Rate (2A) : • the multiplier theory (Total \$ = Initial \$ x 1/Fractional Reserve Rate or Requirement) (3) Money Creation (Direct Money Supply) (2B)

7. Monetary Aggregates (The Three Ms)

8. Review Questions • How do the government budget deficit, and the adjustment of discount rate, reserve rate and money supply influence respectively the inflation, unemployment and general economic activity?

9. Financial Control • Financial Statements Income Statement Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Statement of Changes in Equity • The Bookkeeping • Bank Deposits

10. Summary of Financial Statements

11. EXAMPLE OF CHART OF ACCOUNTS (Accounts List)

12. Chart of Accounts

13. Chart of Accounts

14. Chart of Accounts

15. The Classification of Ledge Accounts

16. The Classification of Ledge Accounts

17. Double Entry Principle Assets (资产), Cost (成本) Debit (＋) Cash Credit (－)

18. Double Entry Principle Liabilities & Owners Equity (负债与所有者权益) Debit (－) Accounts Payable Credit (＋)

19. Double Entry Principle Revenue (收入) Debit (－) Sales Credit (＋)

20. Double Entry Principle Expenses (费用) Debit (＋) Administration Credit (－)

21. Double Entry Principle

22. Judgement of Debit & Credit CASH Assets Costs Expenses Debit (＋) Credit (－) Liabilities Owners Equity Revenue Credit (＋) Debit (－)

23. Double Entry Cases

24. Double Entry Cases

25. Double Entry Cases

26. Double Entry Cases

27. Ledger Entries & Proper Journal

28. Ledger Entries & Proper Journal

29. Trial Balance

30. Trial Balance

31. Trial Balance

32. Trial Balance

33. Trial Balance

34. International Settlement I. The Means Of Payment Mainly: cash and bills A. Cash Or Currency 1. Three kinds of currencies for payments 1) Home currency 2) The currency of the other country concerned 3) Foreign currencies: hard currency, soft currency 2. Main foreign currencies used in our foreign trade

35. International Settlement I. The Means Of Payment Mainly: cash and bills B. Bills 1. Bill of Exchange (or Draft) 1) Variety: a. Commercial bill (draft) and Banker’s Bill (Draft) b. Clean Bill and Documentary Bill c. Sight Bill and Time Bill Commercial Acceptance Bill and Banker’s Acceptance Bill 2) Circulation of draft a. To draw (issue) b. Presentation c. Acceptance d. Payment e. Endorsement f. Dishonor: protest

36. Sample Draft

37. Sample Draft

38. International Settlement I. The Means Of Payment Mainly: cash and bills B. Bills 2. Promissory note 1) General promissory note 2) Banker’s promissory note (cashier’s order) 3. Cheque (check) 1) Guaranteed check 2) Crossed check

39. International Settlement II. Payment Ways A. Remittance 1. Four parties concerned: Remitter (Payer), Payee (Beneficiary), Remitting Bank, Paying Bank 2. Two relationship: Contractual relation between Remitter and Payer, Agent relation between Remitting Bank and Paying Bank 3. Variety: 1) M/T ---- Mail Transfer 2) T/T ---- Telegraphic Transfer 3) D/D ---- Demand draft (or clear payment, or simple payment)

40. International Settlement II. Payment Ways B. Collection 1. Variety: 1) Draft-collection (clean collection): a. at sight; b. after sight 2) Documentary collection a. D/P ---- Documents against payment a) D/P at sight vs. CAD ---- Cash against documents b) D/P after sight & T/R ---- Trust Receipt D/P, T/R b. D/A ---- Document against Acceptance 2. Collection Procedure 3. Four parties concerned and four relations 1) Principal 2) Remitting Bank 3) Collecting Bank 4) Drawee (Payer)

41. Procedure Of A Documentary Collection

42. International Settlement II. Payment Ways C. L/C ---- Letter of Credit 1. The six concerned parties and their relations 1) Applicant or opener 2) Opening Bank or Issuing Bank 3) Advising Bank or Notifying Bank 4) Beneficiary 5) Negotiating Bank 6) Paying bank, Drawee Bank 2. Payment procedure

43. Procedure Of Settlement For Letter Of Credit

44. International Settlement C. L/C ---- Letter of Credit 3. Variety • Revocable L/C and Irrevocable L/C • Confirmed L/C and Unconfirmed L/C • Sight L/C and Usance L/C T/T Reimbursement Clause Banker’s Acceptance L/C vs. Deferred Payment L/C Usance Credit Payable at sight (Buyer’s Usance L/C) • Negotiation L/C and Sight Payment L/C • Transferable L/C and Non-transferable L/C • Revolving L/C • Reciprocal L/C • Back to Back L/C • Anticipatory L/C or Red Clause L/C • Documentary L/C and Standby L/C Vs. L/G ---- Letter of Guarantee, or Bank Guarantee

45. International Settlement Question: Why will the seller take more risks by using COLLECTION than by using LETTER OF CREDIT?

46. Financial Markets • Currency Exchange

47. Official Record of International Business • Balance of Payments

48. The End of Extra Learning

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