Extra Credit Directions: Write a 10 sentences (half page) about the film describing the plot and what you thought of it. These are all rated R, so ask your parents for permission. You need to actually watch it. I may ask you some obscure questions just to make sure. 7 points extra credit each Persian Gulf War • Three Kings (fiction) • Jarhead Iraq War • The Hurt Locker • The Messenger Afghanistan War • Restrepo • Zero Dark Thirty
Bellwork • In what ways is the world different since 9/11? What have you heard? What have you noticed?
Bellwork • Can we stop terrorism? Can we stop it through wars in Iraq and Afghanistan? Do the wars make it worse? If you were president, how would you deal with 9/11?
Anti-Terrorism Actions • Bush creates Department of Homeland Security in 2002 • Analyzes threats, secure borders and airports • Color system eliminated by Obama (arbitrary)
Homeland Security Looks for Sleepers • A sleeper is a an agent that enters a country and blends into a community • always ready to commit terrorist act • 9/11 hijackers were sleepers
The Patriot Act • Allowed the government to: • Detain foreigners suspected of terrorism for seven days without charging them with a crime. • Tap all phones used by suspects and monitor their e-mail and Internet use. • Make search warrants valid across states. • Order U.S. banks to investigate sources of large foreign accounts. • Prosecute terrorist crimes without any time restrictions or limitations. • Some people fear that the law allows the government to violate our rights guaranteed in the Constitution.
Iraq • Led by Saddam Hussein since 1979 • Saddam had invaded Kuwait (Desert Storm) and was on our bad side • United Nations inspectors were supposed to be allowed to go into Iraq to check that he was complying with cease fire. • In 1998, he stopped letting UN inspectors enter the country.
9/11 Makes Bush Worried • After 9/11, President Bush feared Hussein was providing terrorists with weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) • Saddam denies, but does not allow UN inspectors in Iraq. • Finally, in 2002, Saddam allows inspectors into the country. • They don’t find any WMDs, but Bush is not convinced.
Iraq and Al-Qaeda • Bush draws connections between Iraq and Al-Qaeda, claiming that Saddam intended to sell WMD to Bin Laden for use against the United States.
“He Has WMDs” • Colin Powell gave presentation to the UN using audiotapes, satellite photos, and other evidence to argue that Saddam was hiding WMDs. • The US and Britain pushed for a resolution in the UN that would authorize war against Iraq.
Protests Against War • Crowds of antiwar protesters participated in more than 600 rallies around the globe on a single day in February. • An estimated 750,000 protestors turned out in the largest demonstration ever in the British capital. • Most of the demonstrations were peaceful.
War in Iraq • On March 17, 2003, President Bush gave Hussein 48 hours to leave Iraq. • After the dictator refused, the United States and Great Britain launched Operation Iraqi Freedom.
War in Iraq • The war began with massive air raids; sections of Baghdad were the primary targets U.S. ground troops • They arrived at the outskirts of the Iraqi capital by April 2. • Within a week, Baghdad fell to the U.S. military. • Hussein survived the attack and went into hiding.
Government in Iraq • The United States hosted a meeting with Iraqi representation to determine the future government of Iraq. • The representatives adopted a 13-point statement, stating that Iraq would respect diversity and rule by law. • However, one of the country’s main Shi’a groups, the Iranian-based Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution, refused to attend.
Search for WMDs • Much of the case for going to war against Iraq was based on the belief that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction. • Once major combat ended on May 1, U.S. forces began an extensive search for these weapons. • By late-2004, chemical or biological weaponry had not been found.
Iraqi Insurgents • Since the downfall of Saddam, insurgents (fighters) continue to attack US troops in Iraq • Many fight for different reasons • Mainly, Iraq has two religious groups that don’t like each other (Sunni and Shia) • Because of this, Iraq is in a civil war
How Many? • Estimates of the number of insurgents are impossible to confirm. By 2006, US military estimates ranged from 8,000 to 20,000, although Iraqi intelligence officials have issued figures as high as 40,000 fighters plus another 160,000 supporters. Fighters have been found among the insurgents from countries including Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Sudan.
The Hurt Locker • Dismantling an IED • 12:00 – 26:00
The 2007 Surge • The War in Iraq was not going well • Violence was increasing daily • Bush responded by making the (unpopular) decision to send in many more troops to Iraq. • Amazingly this surge has helped reduce violence in Iraq, but questions still remain about what happens when we withdraw from the country.