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Extra credit!

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Extra credit!

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  1. Extra credit! Get out your clickers. The following questions are worth 2 points each.

  2. What direction does the Sun rise in Sydney? • In the East • In the West • In the North • In the South • Cannot conclude

  3. Looking south in Sydney, what type of stars would you see? • Seasonal • Circumpolar • Neither

  4. Looking North in Sydney, what type of stars would you see? • Seasonal • Circumpolar • neither

  5. Sydney’s circumpolar stars rotate • Counterclockwise • Clockwise • Rise in east, set in west • Rise in west, set in east

  6. Agenda • Reading: Finish Unit 5, if you haven’t already. • Star clusters • Stellar life cycles (stellar evolution)

  7. Star clusters • Easier to observe overall evolution than of one star • Stars in a cluster • Formed at the same time • Have similar composition • They will differ only in mass

  8. Globular clusterM 15 Thousands to millions of stars NASA

  9. Globular cluster Tucanae 47 NASA

  10. Open cluster: Pleiades Hundreds of stars Case Western

  11. Open Cluster: Jewel box Jordell Observatory

  12. Color (B – V) on horizontal axis Equivalent to OBAFGKM Apparent magnitude (V) on vertical axis All stars at the same distance Easy to convert to absolute magnitude HR diagram of a cluster

  13. Evolution and the HR diagram High mass (higher luminosity) stars progress through life more quickly Lower mass stars take longer to be born, consume their fuel more slowly.

  14. Which HR diagram shows the older cluster? B. A. C. Cannot conclude

  15. Young cluster ~80 million yrs U. of Sheffield

  16. Older cluster U. of Oregon

  17. Compare the HR diagrams Many older red giants Many young, hot (blue) stars

  18. Star clusters — summary Stars in one cluster are of different types but the same age. Observing many clusters tells us about star life cycles HR diagram Old stars leave the main sequence Cluster age <=> turnoff point

  19. Stellar “evolution” (first part) What we found in star clusters: • Small stars live longer • Very massive stars live hard and die young • Old stars leave the main sequence to become red giants.

  20. Raw materials for star birth Interstellar clouds. This is a star cluster in the making!

  21. Raw materials for star birth

  22. In a Stellar nursery • Raw materials collapse • Protostar begins to spin • Eventually, fusion of H into He begins

  23. Life as a star Zero-age main sequence when a star first starts fusing H into He Stars do this for 90% of their lives

  24. Big stars don’t live long! • Massive stars burn very fast. • They soon run out of fuel! Wikipedia

  25. Time on main sequence versus initial stellar mass ~12 billion years (Sun) 50 million years 1 million years! Large stars live and die very quickly! 200 billion years! Initial stellar mass (MSun)

  26. H runs out: star becomes a red giant Exterior expanding H fusing He core contracting This is how stars leave the main sequence!

  27. Our star is tiny compared to a red giant! Wikipedia

  28. Further evolution Helium all used up, gravity takes over again Much mass is spewed into space

  29. Mass now determines death Low mass: White dwarf Medium mass: Neutron star or pulsar High mass: Black hole

  30. Summary Stars are born from Hydrogen Stars spend 90% of their lifetime fusing Hydrogen into Helium Stars leave the main sequence and become red giants

  31. Next time Death of stars: Black holes, neutron stars, Relativity