Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Data Networking PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Data Networking

Data Networking

118 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Data Networking

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. DataNetworking

  2. Lesson 1:Introduction to Data Networking

  3. Objectives • Define common network topologies and identify structured cable distribution schemes • Identify the major industry bodies and standards, and obtain and read standards documents • Identify the layers of the Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI/RM), and describe the function of each layer • Relate networking and convergence protocols, services and equipment to each OSI/RM layer • Explain data encapsulation in relation to frame assembly and function on the network • Relate common networking and convergence protocols, services and equipment to each of the four layers of the TCP/IP model

  4. Networks Defined • Network – two or more connected computers that share data • Host – a computer that participates in a network, often providing services to other computing systems • Most networks are: • Local area networks (LANs) • Wide area networks (WANs)

  5. Data Networks and Convergence • The public switched telephone network (PSTN) is an integral part of the Internet infrastructure • Internet Protocol (IP) telephony– a technology that uses packet-switched connections to exchange voice, fax and other forms of data • Voice over IP (VoIP)– voice information delivered in digital form as packets of data using IP • Communications over Internet Protocol (CoIP)– a set of emerging standards defining transmission of multimedia (text, images, video) over the Internet

  6. Networking Elements and Models Network elements: • Protocols – communication rules on which all network elements must agree • Transmission media– media (such as cables or wireless technologies) that enable all networking elements to interconnect • Network services– resources that all network users share Networking models: • Mainframe – centralized; all processing is performed by the mainframe • Client/server – distributed; reduces congestion by dividing processing and storage tasks between the client and the server • Web-based – increasingly decentralized and more affordable networking

  7. Network Topologies

  8. Star Topology

  9. Star Bus Hybrid Topology

  10. Partial Mesh Topology

  11. Full Mesh Topology

  12. Network Connections and Cable Distribution • Backbone cabling– used to connect LANs together • Campus distributor (CD)– used between routers and switches to connect LANs in different buildings within one general location • Vertical cabling– considered part of the backbone and runs between floors in a multi-floor building • Building distributor (BD)– the main interface between public or private telecommunications lines coming into a building and the internal network wiring • Horizontal wiring– connects individual users to the data or telecommunications network • Cross-connect– the point at which one type of wiring or cabling is connected with another

  13. Network Connections and Cable Distribution (cont'd) • Wiring closet– a room or closet that houses all equipment associated with telecommunications wiring systems • Floor distributor (FD)– a rack that interconnects wiring between a BD and workstations • Patch panel– a group of sockets (usually consisting of pin locations and ports) mounted on a rack • Punchdown block– a device that connects one group of wires to another group of wires through a system of metal pins to which the wires are attached

  14. Networking and Telephony Standards Organisations • International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • International Telecommunications Union (ITU) • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • Electronic Industries Alliance / Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) • Communications Information Technology Association (CITA) • European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)

  15. Networking and Telephony Standards Organisations (cont'd) • Independent Committee for the Supervision of Standards of Telephone Information Services (ICSTIS) • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) • Internet Society (ISOC) • Internet Architecture Board (IAB) • Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) • Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

  16. OSI Reference Model Layer Layer Number Application 7 Presentation 6 Session 5 Transport 4 Network 3 Data link 2 Physical 1

  17. Network Communication

  18. Application-layer protocols SIP, H.323, MGCP, SMTP, POP3, HTTP, DNS, BOOTP, FTP, Telnet, LDAP Presentation-layer protocols ASN.1, Codecs Session-layer protocols RTCP, NetBIOS, SQL, ASP Transport-layer protocols RTP, TCP, UDP, ATP Network-layer protocols IP, ICMP, ARP, DDP Data link-layer protocols 802.2, 802.3, 802.11 Physical layer Network hardware or technologies OSI Protocol Examples

  19. Packet Creation – Adding Headers

  20. Data Encapsulation • Data– the application, presentation and session layers • Segment– the transport layer • Packet– the network layer • Frame– the data link layer Cyclical redundancy check (CRC)– verifies whether a packet is valid • Imagine a packet as a package being shipped to you: The CRC would be considered a packing slip or a bill of lading

  21. Packet structure: Header Data Trailer Packets

  22. Introduction to TCP/IP • Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)– the current de facto standard for both local and wide area networking • TCP/IP four-layer model: • Application layer – interacts with the transport-layer protocols to send or receive data • Transport layer – provides the flow of information between two hosts • Network/Internet layer– addresses and routes packets on TCP/IP networks • Link/network access layer– accepts higher-layer packets, creates frames and transmits them over the attached network

  23. TCP/IP Model vs. OSI Model

  24. Summary • Define common network topologies and identify structured cable distribution schemes • Identify the major industry bodies and standards, and obtain and read standards documents • Identify the layers of the Open Systems Interconnection reference model (OSI/RM), and describe the function of each layer • Relate networking and convergence protocols, services and equipment to each OSI/RM layer • Explain data encapsulation in relation to frame assembly and function on the network • Relate common networking and convergence protocols, services and equipment to each of the four layers of the TCP/IP model

  25. Lesson 2:Transmission, Communicationand Wiring

  26. Objectives • Compare and contrast the use of E-carrier, T-carrier, SONET/SDH and ISDN technologies for data and voice networks, including bandwidths of common technologies • Identify cable terminators • Define and contrast data communications equipment (DCE) and data terminating equipment (DTE) • Identify network media, and identify proper cabling procedures in specific environments • Compare and contrast straight-through, crossover, rolled and null-modem cabling

  27. Transmission Types • Synchronous transmission • Access device and network device share a clock • Asynchronous transmission • No clock in the transmission media • Data transmission flow • Simplex – data travels in only one direction • Half duplex – data travels in two directions, but in only one direction at a time • Full duplex – data travels in two directions simultaneously • Baseband and broadband transmissions • Baseband – uses entire media bandwidth for a single channel • Broadband – divides the media bandwidth into multiple channels, and each channel carries a separate signal

  28. Digital Signaling • Digital signal level zero (DS0) – the basic level of digital communication upon which all other digital signaling levels are built • Digital Signal Hierarchy (DSH) – an electrical (as opposed to optical) hierarchy used to classify the speed capacities of multiplexed lines • T-carrier system – a North American high-speed digital carrier system used to transmit data • E-carrier system – a European high-speed digital carrier system used to transmit data in almost all countries outside the United States, Canada and Japan

  29. Digital Signaling (cont'd) • Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) – a completely digital service capable of carrying voice, fax, imaging or data communications • Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) – a North America high-speed fiber-optic system for optical transmissions • Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) – an international high-speed fiber-optic system for optical transmissions

  30. DSH and T-Carrier Equivalents

  31. T-Carrier vs. E-Carrier Speeds

  32. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) ISDN configurations: • 2B+D – also known as Basic Rate Interface (BRI). Intended for home use. Uses two 64-Kbps B channels and one 16-Kbps D channel • 23B+1D – available in the United States and Japan. Intended for business use. Designed for 23 B channels plus one D channel • 30B+2D – also known as Primary Rate Interface (PRI). Available in Europe. Intended for business use. Designed for 30 B channels and two D channels

  33. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)

  34. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

  35. Benefits of Using SONET/SDH • It is possible to use multiplexers and routers to combine different data lines and streams onto one line • One heterogeneous network can communicate with another distant heterogeneous network

  36. Common Peripheral Ports • Serial ports • Universal Serial Bus (USB) • FireWire (IEEE 1394) • Parallel ports • PS/2 connectors • Small computer system interface (SCSI) • Amphenol connectors

  37. Serial Ports • Serial ports are computer sockets that connect serial devices to a computer • Use two types of connectors: • DB-9 (9-pin) – usually COM1 • DB-25 (25-pin) – usually COM2 and used for modem

  38. Universal Serial Bus (USB) • USB interface may replace serial and parallel ports • USB allows up to 127 devices to be daisy-chained using one USB port • Two USB standards: • USB 1.0 offers transfer rate of 12 Mbps for fast devices (and 1.5 Mbps for slow devices) • USB 2.0 offers transfer rate of up to 480 Mbps • Two USB connectors: • Type A is rectangular and relatively small. All permanent connections use the Type A connector • Type B is square and is only used for devices that use a separate cable

  39. FireWire (IEEE 1394) • A serial bus especially popular for attaching video devices to computers • Allows up to 63 devices to be daisy-chained • Supports hot swapping • Guarantees bandwidth for multimedia • Two FireWire versions: • IEEE 1394asupports data transfer rates of up to 400 Mbps • IEEE 1394b supports data transfers of 800 to 1,200 Mbps

  40. Parallel Ports • Parallel ports are computer sockets that connect a printer or any other parallel device to a computer • Enhanced using the IEEE 1284 standard, which provides bi-directional transfers and increased speeds • Parallel cables can be 32 feet long

  41. PS/2 connectors • Used to connect a keyboard or a mouse to a computer • 6-pin circular connector • Used on all laptops and PCs

  42. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) • SCSI is a parallel interface that allows two devices to communicate at the same time • Allows seven to 15 devices to be daisy-chained • Last device in a daisy chain must have a SCSI terminator • Three types of SCSI connectors: • 25-pin (SCSI-1) • 50-pin (SCSI-2) • 68-pin (SCSI-3)

  43. Often used in patch cables for connecting 66 and 110 punchdown blocks Amphenol Connectors

  44. Transmission Media Free space transmission media: • Infrared • Short-range wireless • Microwave • Satellite Cable transmission media: • Twisted-pair cable • Coaxial cable • Fiber-optic cable

  45. Free Space Transmission • Infrared (IR) – wireless communication in which signals are sent via light waves that are longer than those of the visible light spectrum • Short-range wireless – used for networking PCs and for connecting a PC to peripherals • The most common standard for peripheral device communications is Bluetooth • Microwave – signals sent by line-of-sight transmission via parabolic antennas mounted on towers • Satellite – transmits information between two stations that are not within the line of sight of each other

  46. Twisted-Pair Cable • Maximum segment length of 100 metres • Available in two basic types: • Shielded (STP) – twisted copper wrapped in a metal sheath; more difficult to install and maintain than UTP • Unshielded (UTP) – most common; less expensive than STP, but prone to electromagnetic interference • STP and UTP are available in two varieties: • Stranded – most common; flexible and easy to handle around corners and objects • Solid – can span longer distances, but less flexible and will break if bent multiple times

  47. Twisted-Pair Categories

  48. Twisted-Pair Cable Types • Straight-through cable – the transmit wires on one end of the cable connect to the transmit wires on the opposite end of the cable • Crossover cable – the transmit wires on one end will connect to the receiving wires on the other end, and vice versa • Rolled cable – a serial cable in which one end of the cable is wired as the mirror image of the other end • Null-modem cable – an RS-232 serial cable in which the transmit and receive lines are cross-linked

  49. Coaxial Cable • Used for video and communication networks • Provides higher bandwidth than twisted-pair cable • Designed for baseband, broadband and television networks • Supports data transfer rates from 1 Mbps to100 Mbps • Transfer rate of 10 Mbps common for LAN • Common types: RG-6, RG-11, RG-59 • Uses the F-type connector:

  50. Common Coax Cable Types