Do Now “What were some of the driving forces behind Europe becoming a continent or manors and small kingdoms. How did this hamper the development of large kingdoms in Western Europe?”
Chapter 13 Section 2: Feudalism in Europe
Invasions of Western Europe • Occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire • Really became a problem between the years 800 and 1000 AD. • Caused the final collapse of the Carolingian Empire.
The Muslims • Invaded from the South, from areas such as North Africa and Spain. • Between the years of 600 and 700 their goal was to conquer Europe • Goal changed and between 800 and 900 they moved to plundering and destroying. • They were expert seafarers and attacked towns all along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.
Magyars • Attacked from the East and terrorized Germany and Italy • They were groups of nomadic people attacking from what is now Hungary. • They were superb horsemen. • They were known best for attacking isolated villages and monasteries. • They never settled the land they conquered, but took the people as slaves. • Attacks would start after the Vikings tapered off.
Vikings • Set sail from North (Scandinavia) • They would land, strike, and set sail again quickly • Most attacks were without warning • Warships were huge, and could hold over 300 men and weighed 20 tons when fully loaded. • They could also said in under 3 feet of water allowing them to travel up numerous rivers to reach the heart of Western Europe. • Attacks would eventually end when warmer weather trends made farming easier and Christianity was accepted as their religion.
Do Now • Describe to me the structure of feudal society. Who was at the top of this structure, who followed him, and so on. Also list for me characteristics about their lifestyle. Finally, tell me about life on the manor.
Beginnings of Feudalism • Attacks caused widespread confusion and suffering. • Kings could no longer be counted on as a central authority. • Forced people to turn to local rulers who possessed their own armies for protection.
Feudalism • This was a system based on obligations and rights. • For example, in exchange for protection, a lord would grant a fief (or plot of land) to a vassal. • Structure was very important and where you stood in the hierarchy determined your power. • The king reigned from the peak, most powerful nobles came next, knights after, and finally peasants and serfs.
Life on the Manor • The most powerful vassals also had knights who pledged themselves to his protection. • In exchange, each knight would also have his own fief. • Serfs and Peasants worked the land they lived on for their vassal. • They could not lawfully leave the place they were born, and whatever their labor produced belonged to their lord.
Economics of Feudalism • The manor, during the Middle Ages, would be the basic economic arrangement in Western Europe. • Lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits. • In return, the serfs tended his land, cared for his animals, and performed maintenance tasks.
Design of the Manor • Usually covered a few square miles of land • Consisted of the lord’s house, a church, and a variety of workshops. • 15 to 30 families lived on the manor. • Surrounding the manor were fields, woodlands, and pastures. • Streams were used for fishing and mill houses used its power to grind grain • Only unusual objects were imported • Millstones, salt, etc.