Guillain-Barre Syndrome(Polyneuritis) Presented by: Gari Dee Glaser
What is GBS? • A disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. • Think AUTOIMMUNE.
Who can it affect? • ANYONE! • It can strike at any age and both sexes are equally prone to the disorder. • It is RARE. • Afflicting about one person in 100,000.
What happens? • The body’s immune system starts attacking itself. • Immune system starts to destroy the myelin sheath that surrounds the axons of many peripheral nerves, or even the axons themselves. • Demyelination.
What causes GBS? • The exact cause is unknown. • No one knows for sure why it strikes some people and not others. • Usually occurs a few days or a few weeks after a patient has had symptoms of a respiratory or GI viral infection.
Clinical Manifestations. • Weakness, usually beginning in the lower extremities. • As it progresses it moves upward and can include the thorax, upper extremities and face. • Respiratory failure may occur if intercostal muscles become affected. • Progression can be over several months.
Clinical Manifestations. • Reflexes – such as knee jerks - are LOST.
Diagnostics. • CT Scan. • Lumbar Puncture. • Cerebrospinal Fluid. • Nerve Conduction Study. • Electromyography.
Medical Management. • Once GBS is suspected, it’s important patient be hospitalized. • Plasmapheresis. • Keep patients body functioning during recovery of nervous system.
Medical Management. • Adrenocortical Steroids. • Used mainly to treat signs and symptoms of GBS. • Neurontin. (Anti-epileptic). • Helps reduce neuropathic pain. • Elavil. (Tricyclic Anti-depressant). • Helps reduce neuropathic pain.
Nursing Interventions. • Close monitoring of respiratory function – necessary & important. • Nutritional maintenance. • Administer meds for neuropathic pain. • Prevention of complications. • Contractures. Pressure Ulcers. Loss of ROM. • Physical Therapy in early diagnosis. • Prevents contractures.
Prognosis. • 85% of sufferers regain complete function. • At one year from start of symptoms, 20% may still have weakness. • Only 5% will have permanent disability. • Recovery varies from weeks to years. • Recovery is in reverse of how paralysis started.