Restless Leg Syndrome and GuillainBarre Syndrome By: Timothy Hartman and Daniel Tedder We are Awesome.
Restless Leg Syndrome • Restless Leg Syndrome, or RLS, is a neurological disorder affecting the legs, causing them to move. RLS also affects sleep, so it can be classified as a sleep disorder.
Causes • Pregnancy and medications can increase the possibility of RLS in some people. Specifically, antipsychotics and antidepressants can contribute to the development of RLS. • The exact cause of RLS is unknown but, it is suspected that genetics play a role. Almost 50% of people with RLS also have a family member with the condition. • Some chronic diseases and medical conditions can also play a role in RLS. Iron deficiency, Parkinson's, and diabetes can all contribute to RLS.
Signs and Symptoms • Urge to move the legs. • The urge is accompanied by unpleasant sensations such as: itching, tingling, burning, “creepy crawly feeling,” and aching. • Symptoms worsen at night. • Relief from walking or movement. • Trouble sleeping due to limb movement which can wake cause him/her to wake up, resulting in sleepiness and difficulty concentrating during the day. • This condition is known as Periodic Limb Movement in Sleep. (PLMS)
Diagnosis • The doctor will take a history, asking questions about any family history, medical condition, and medications. • He will complete a physical exam to search for underlying conditions that could trigger RLS. • There are no diagnostic tests for RLS but, the doctor may recommend a blood test to check iron levels.
Treatment and Prognosis • Treatment of RLS includes: hot or cold baths, heat or ice packs, walking and stretching, and massaging the limb. • Drugs are also used to treat RLS. No one medicine works for every patient but, medication used in Parkinson’s treatment is also used to treat RLS. • Prognosis- RLS symptoms may go away and reappear for long periods of time. Lifestyle changes often help the treatment of RLS. RLS can cause stress and anxiety so it is important for the patient to have family and health care support.
Guillain-BarréSyndrome • Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a disorder in the immune system, causing it to attack the myelin sheath of nerves. GBS can also be classified as an autoimmune disease because the body is being harmed by the immune system. It is a rare disorder, affecting only 1 in 100,000 people.
Causes • The exact cause of Guillain-BarréSyndrome is unknown but, it normally occurs after a viral or bacterial infection of the lungs, stomach, or intestines.
Signs and Symptoms • S/S: Prickling sensation in the fingers and toes • Weakness in the lower limbs that spreads to the arms and face. • Unsteady walking • Difficulty with eye and facial movement, chewing, swallowing, and breathing. • Incontinence
Diagnosis • Diagnosis: Because GBS symptoms are similar to other neurological disorders, it can be hard to diagnose in its early stages. The Doctor will take a careful history and will also use a spinal tap to diagnose the patient. The CSF is analyzed for changes common in people with GBS.
Treatment and Prognosis • Tx: Two types of treatment for GBS, Plasmapheresis and Intravenous immunoglobulin. • Plasmapheresis: AKA a plasma exchange. This process includes removing the plasma (liquid) from the blood, and putting the blood cells back in the body, requiring the body to make new plasma. It is believed that this treat removes the harmful antibodies from the blood. • Intravenous immunoglobulin- Doses of immunoglobulin are given to the patient. The immunoglobulin contains healthy antibodies that can help fight the disease. • Prognosis: Most patients fully recover within 6 to 12 months. For some, full recovery can take up to 3 years. Guillain-Barré Syndrome can cause death, but if treated it is extremely rare.
Works Cited • http://www.webmd.com/brain/restless-legs-syndrome/restless-legs-syndrome-rls • http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/rls/signs.html • http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/gbs/detail_gbs.htm • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/guillain-barre-syndrome/basics/symptoms/con-20025832 • http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/167892.php