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RADAR TRACKING SYSTEMS

RADAR TRACKING SYSTEMS

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RADAR TRACKING SYSTEMS

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  1. RADAR TRACKING SYSTEMS

  2. Radar Tracking Systems

  3. Objectives • Describe how a radar servo tracking system keeps the antenna pointed at the target. • Distinguish between single beam, dual beam and monopulse tracking system and identify which system is accurate enough for use in a fire control system. • List and explain the 6 functions of the TWS system • Outline how the 3 tracking gates used by the TWS system generate position information for a target from initial acquisition through a turn.

  4. The “Problem” • Locating, Tracking and Engaging faster, more maneuverable targets from platforms that roll, pitch and yaw (рыскать)! • Limitation of sensor capabilities • Search Radar • Fire Control (FC) Radar

  5. FC Radar Servo Tracking Systems • Motor – physically rotates antenna. • Electro-hydraulic motor for large systems. • Electric motors for smaller systems. • Servo-mechanism – controls direction of antenna rotation. • Receives two inputs: • Tracker – azimuth to point at. • Antenna position sensor – where antenna is pointed.

  6. FC Radar Servo Tracking Systems • Tracker – determines target azimuth and antenna position error (magnitude and direction). • Single beam system. • Dual beam system. • Monopulse. • Gyro – Provides a stable reference for system. • Negates roll, pitch and yaw. • Data smoothing.

  7. Servomechanism Order to Motor Controller Tracker Output Position Sensor Move Antenna Servo

  8. Tracking – Single Beam Target location at the point of max return. Insufficient accuracy for weapons delivery

  9. Conical Scan

  10. Tracking – Dual Beam Ideally, target centered between two beams. • Improved accuracy over single beam system • Sufficient accuracy for weapons delivery.

  11. Tracking - Monopulse • Essentially 2 Dual beam systems • One Azimuth • One Elevation • High accuracy • Used for fire control tracking.

  12. Range Tracking/Gates • Merge of Dual Beam FC tracking system with a integration computer. • Provides continuous info as to target’s “predicted” position. • Early gate. • Late gate. • Based upon abilities of FC technician, can Range Track • more than one target.

  13. Fire Control Radar Tracking Problems • Fire Control tracking always “lagged” Fire Control problem. • Target possibly knows it’s being tracked by a fire control radar. • Hence commence evasive maneuvers

  14. Solution Track – While – Scan (TWS)

  15. Concept of TWS • Incorporate a search radar and a computer. • Radar continues to perform primary functions of search (scanning) and determines target position. • Radar sends position data to the tracking computer. • Computer performs target tracking calculations on all target data provided. • System is able to accurately predict target position. Track While Scan (TWS) • LEAD the Target!

  16. Fundamentals of TWS • Target detection • Track initiation and track file generation • Generation of tracking “Gates” • Target track correlation • Track gate prediction • Display Six Basic Functions:

  17. Target Detection • Automatic Detection and Tracking (ADT). • Digitizes (0’s and 1’s) scan area of search radar. • Each position in search area given specific digital “address”. • Once radar return received by ADT, FC solution generated for specific “address”.

  18. Track Initiation and Track File Generation • Track file generated to store position (address) and gate data for each track. • Generation begins with initial storage of position (address) data. • Lat / Long. • Course / Speed. • Bearing / Range /Altitude. • Estimated Position (EP) data. • Correlating data (from own ship).

  19. Gate Generation Tracking Gate Predicted Position Turning Gate Measured Position • Acquisition Gate (Largest) • Tracking Gate (Smallest) • Turning Gate

  20. TWS Gates Acquisition Gate 10 degrees 10 degrees 2000 yards

  21. TWS Gates Tracking Gate 1.5 degrees 1.5 degrees 120 yards

  22. TWS Gates Turn Detection Gate Tracking Gate *Dimensions of this gate are determined by computer based on speed of target.

  23. TWS Processing Original Course Turn Gate Reacquire Target Tracking Gates Resume Tracking Acquisition Gate

  24. Track Correlation • System Resolution Rules. • Software decisions based upon threat environment and ROE. • Ambiguities resolved for: • Multiple gates on same target. • Multiple targets in same gate. • Crossing targets. • Computer has algorithms to sort out conflicts (e.g., contacts swapping identification during merge) • Operator must check computer results

  25. TWS Radar System Advantages • Automated tracking • Track prediction • Tracks multiple targets simultaneously • Tracking info used to compute FC solution • Tracks with only a search radar and a computer

  26. Real World Applications • AN/SYS-2 IADT (Integrated Automated Detection and Tracking) • Carriers • CG • DDG • FFG

  27. Tracking Recap • Servo tracking systems can only handle a few, maybe just one, track(s) • Likely lag the problem (fire solution slow/inaccurate) • Wait for an update (radar hit) to re-position antenna and target plot • Track While Scan systems can easily handle multiple targets • Keep targets within predicted volume in space • System is projecting ahead to where the target should be next