Skill Focus: E1.18(A) use conventions of capitalization STAAR/EOC Readiness StandardWriting Coach pages 546-550 Capitalization in Sentences
RULE 1: Capitalize the first word in all sentences. Examples: My sister visited London last summer. Did she see Buckingham Palace?
RULE 2: Capitalize the first word in interjections and incomplete questions. Examples: Wow! That’s wonderful news! Where? What time?
Rule 3:Always capitalize the personal pronoun I. Examples: Iwon the bicycle race! Where should I ride this weekend?
Rule 4: Capitalize the first word after a colon ONLY if the word begins a complete sentence. Do NOT capitalize the word if it begins a list of words or phrases. Examples: The hiker repeated his message:He was lost. The campers packed the following items: backpacks, tents, and blankets.
Rule 5: Capitalize the first word in each line of traditional poetry, even if the line does not start a new sentence. Examples: My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky… --William Wordsworth “My Heart Leaps Up”
Rule 6:Capitalize the first word in a direct quotation. However, do NOT capitalize the first word of a continuing quotation that has been interrupted or is incomplete. Examples: “The gorilla has escaped!”someone exclaimed. “Should I,” asked the zookeeper, “follow this trail of banana peels?” Park officials reported that the animal was “caught in the gift shop.”
Skill Focus: E1.18(A) use conventions of capitalization STAAR/EOC Readiness StandardWriting Coach pages 551-558 Capitalization with Proper Nouns
RULE 1: Capitalize the specific name of any person, place, or thing (proper nouns). Examples: Jill, my sister who lives in Austin, read Alice in Wonderland at the library before she saw the movie.
RULE 2: Capitalize each part of a person’s name even when the full name is not used. Examples: My favorite authors include Ray Bradbury, J. R. R.Tolkien, and Edgar Allan Poe.
Rule 3: Capitalize names found on maps and place names (streets, countries, lakes, buildings, schools, etc.) Examples: We turned west on Gandy Street and arrived at the Forth Worth Museum of Science and History.
Words indicating direction are capitalized only when they refer to a section or region of the country. Examples: The North fought against the South during the Civil War. Union soldiers marched south across the battlefield.
Capitalize names of celestial bodies (planets, etc.) except for moon and sun. Examples: We watched the moon pass between the sun and Earth during the eclipse.
Do NOT capitalize words such as park, hotel, or building unless the word is part of the proper name. Examples: We walked to the Golden Palms Hotel from a park near the beach.
Rule 4: Capitalize major historical events, time periods, and documents as well as dates and holidays. Examples: Memorial Day was instituted at the end of World War I to honor fallen soldiers.
* Capitalize days of the week and months of the year, but do NOT capitalize the names of seasons. Examples: The first Monday in September is the next holiday after our summer vacation.
RULE 5: Capitalize names of organizations, governmental bodies, political parties, races, nationalities, languages, and religions. Examples: A group of Israeli exchange students sponsored by the Knights of Columbus attended a lecture on Judaism.
Rule 6: Capitalize the names of awards, specific types of airplanes, boats, and spacecraft, and brand names. Examples: An astronaut received the Medal of Space Exploration for discovering a giant Converse shoeprint after piloting a Luna V spacecraft to the moon.
Rule 7: Capitalize most proper adjectives. Examples: Although I craved Italian food, my family ate at a Chinese restaurant.
RULE 8: Capitalize a brand name when it is used as an adjective, but do not capitalize the common noun it modifies. Examples: I bought Levis jeans and a Timex watch at the local mall.
Rule 9: Do NOT capitalize a common noun used with two proper adjectives. Examples: My house is on Evergreen Street, but I used to live on the corner of Niven and Card streets.
Rule 10: Do NOT capitalize prefixes attached to proper adjectives unless the prefix refers to a nationality. In a hyphenated adjective, capitalize only the proper adjective. Example: Many Spanish-speaking citizens live in all-American communities.
Skill Focus: E1.18(A) use conventions of capitalization STAAR/EOC Readiness StandardWriting Coach pages 559-564 Other Uses of Capitals
RULE 1: Capitalize the first word and all nouns in letter openings (salutations) and the first word in letter closings. Examples: Dear Steve, My dear Sister, Sincerely yours, Best regards,
RULE 2: Capitalize a person’s title only when it is used with the person’s name or when it is used as a proper name by itself. Examples: “How is Grandma feeling?” my mom asked Dr. Wilson.
Rule 3:Capitalize certain honorary titles held by government officials as a sign of respect. Examples: The First Lady gave a speech at our library!
Rule 4: When referring to relatives, only capitalize when the title is used with or in place of the person’s actual name. Example: Uncle Leo only gives my brother a dollar for his birthday, a fact which upsets Mother.
RULE 5: Do NOT capitalize titles showing family relationships when they have a word that shows ownership in front of them. Examples: Myaunt married Jeff’sfather while Grandma cried her eyes out.
Rule 6: Capitalize the first word and all other important words in titles of books, movies, songs, etc. Example: Willow listened to “The Blitzkrieg Bop” by the Ramones while reading Poe’s “The Fall of the House of Usher.”
Rule 7: Capitalize titles of classes only if they are language courses, are followed by a number, or are used with an adjective. Examples: Although I enjoyed Spanish last year, my favorite classes were probably History II, Honors Physics, and math.