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Chapter 2 Communicating in Teams and Mastering Listening and Nonverbal Communication Skills

Chapter 2 Communicating in Teams and Mastering Listening and Nonverbal Communication Skills

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Chapter 2 Communicating in Teams and Mastering Listening and Nonverbal Communication Skills

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  1. Chapter 2Communicating in Teams and Mastering Listening and Nonverbal Communication Skills Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  2. Team • What is the difference between a group and a team? Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  3. Group Formation • Forming:It is the orientation stage for group members. • Storming:Group members begin to stake out their positions; they begin to have conflicts and arguments. • Norming:Progress begins here. Group members begin to solve conflicts and recognize acceptable kinds on conduct. Rules can be written or unwritten, depending on the group. • Performing:The group begins to achieve it goals. • Adjourning:The group has completed its goals and tasks. It is time to disband and bring closure to the group. • Transforming: Individuals will incorporate the skills they have mastered as they encounter future groups Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  4. Overview of Teams Advantages Disadvantages Information and Knowledge Groupthink Diversity of Views Hidden Agendas Solution Acceptance Free Riders Improved Performance Increased Costs Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  5. Meeting problems • Which three are most common problems in meetings you attend? • For example… • Meeting problem 1: No agenda or plan • Solution: Even if you are not officially leading the meeting, develop a general outline of what you expect for and from the meeting. Share it at the beginning of the meeting. “My understanding is that…, is that correct?”

  6. Ineffective Meetings • Characteristics of negative meetings†: • 83% – drift from the subject • 77% – poor preparation • 74% – questionable effectiveness • 68% – lack of listening • 62% – verbose participants • 60% – length • 51% – lack of participation †From Achieving Effective Meetings – Not Easy But Possible, Bradford D. Smart in a survey of 635 executives.

  7. Effective Meetings • What people are looking for in effective meetings‡: • 88% – participation • 66% – well defined meeting purpose • 62% – address each item on the agenda • 59% – assign follow-up action • 47% – record discussion • 46% – invite essential personnel • 36% – publish an agenda

  8. Why Effective Meetings? • Opportunity Costs • A one-hour meeting with 2 managers and 4 employees: • Manager: $150/hour – $300 • Employees: $60/hour – $240.00 • Total – $540.00

  9. To meet or not to meet… • Take a few moments to jot down your thoughts. Would you call a group meeting to: • Announce a change in dress code • Provide a project update • Provide regular work team status • Introduce a new employee • Reconcile differences in a work team • Get feedback on a new proposal

  10. To meet or not to meet… • Announce a change in dress code – a memo/email can announce the change, a meeting would be useful to answer questions and gain acceptance • Provide a project update – pure status reports can be sent as memos or emails, meetings allow for questions and problems solving if necessary • Provide regular work team status – pure status reports can be sent as memos or emails • Introduce a new employee – one-on-one is best • Reconcile differences in a work team – a meeting is important so all voices can be heard and fairness is ensured • Get feedback on a new proposal – a group meeting may foster brainstorming. Individual meetings are important ensure you hear from those who may be intimidated in larger settings

  11. Agenda Contents • Date • Location • Time (start and end) • Participants (required and optional) • Topics • Time (for each topic) • Speakers (for each topic) Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  12. Participating in Meetings During the Meeting • Start on time and introduce the agenda. • Consider an icebreaker • Appoint the following • Scribe • Process checker • Time keeper • Encourage balanced participation. • Confront conflict frankly. • Summarize points of consensus along the way. Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  13. Planning and Participatingin Meetings Ending the Meeting and Following Up • Review meeting decisions. • Distribute minutes of meeting. • Remind people of action items. Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  14. Meeting Etiquette • It is always astonishing that professionals poised to attend a meeting enter a conference room empty handed and sometimes empty headed. • If a printed agenda of the meeting was distributed prior to the start time, bring that agenda with you. • Bring a paper and pen. • If you are being asked to contribute to the meeting, bring supporting documents and be sure there are enough copies for everyone in the room. • Bring fresh ideas and/or opinions after reading any materials provided prior to the meeting.

  15. Meeting Etiquette • If you are invited to a meeting and cannot attend, alert the person in charge of the meeting and tell him/her if you are sending a substitute. • Latecomers should slip in, be seated, and catch up with what they missed after the meeting. • Most meetings should be kept to an hour. Longer than an hour leads to brain numbness and a lack of energy in the room. If the topic is too broad and an hour isn’t enough, schedule a follow-up meeting. • If it is a brainstorming meeting, invite interaction. Encourage lively discussions. Keep track of all ideas on a large board so everyone can see what has been brought up.

  16. Additional Thoughts • Don’t Read to the Group • Place more emphasis on processing information, than on giving information • A meeting is a place to discuss an issue to assure agreement or full understanding. • Everyone contributes to a meeting’s success. • Everyone must do their part. • If the material covered is not relevant to some people, arrange to have them excused from that portion of the meeting. • Allow time for processing and group development • Checking off agenda items in a rapid-fire process is not always productive. It may move the meeting along more quickly, but may leave you wondering ‘what happened?’ when it’s over.

  17. Final Thoughts • Praise! Praise! Praise! • Praise people twice as much as you criticize. • Never let any good deed or action go unheralded in the group. • Say thank you publicly at every meeting. • Recognize the value of peoples’ contributions at the beginning or within the meeting. • Plan. Plan. Plan. • Meeting design is the #1 mechanism for effective meetings. • For each agenda item, make sure the group is clear about the goals, processes, and functions.

  18. What is the difference between listening and hearing? Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  19. Three Types of Listening • Content – to understand and retain the information given • Critical – to understand and evaluate the meaning of the message (argument logic, evidence strength, speaker’s motives, etc.) • Empathic – to understand the speaker’s feelings, needs, and wants to understand the speaker’s point of view Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  20. Physical Reception Selective Listening Prejudgment Selective Perception Little Common Ground Memory Problems Barriers to Listening Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  21. Tips for Becoming anActive Listener • Stop talking. • Control your surroundings. • Establish a receptive mind-set. • Listen for main points. • Listen between the lines. • Judge ideas, not appearances. • Hold your fire. • Take selective notes. • Provide feedback. Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  22. MisconceptionsAbout Listening • Listening is a matter of intelligence. • FACT: Careful listening is a learned behavior. • Speaking is more important than listening in the communication process. • FACT: Speaking and listening are equally important. • Listening is easy and requires little energy. • FACT: Active listeners undergo the same physiological changes as a person jogging. • Listening and hearing are the same process. • FACT: Listening is a conscious, selective process. Hearing is an involuntary act. • Competence in listening develops naturally. • FACT: Untrained people listen at only 25 percent efficiency. Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  23. Facial Expressions Gestures and Posture Vocal Characteristics Personal Appearance Touching Behavior Use of Time and Space Categories of Nonverbal Communication Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  24. Four Space Zones for Social Interaction Among Americans • Intimate Zone (1-1 1/2 feet) • Personal Zone (1 ½ to 4 feet) • Social Zone (4-12 feet) • Public Zone (12 or more feet) Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  25. Tips for Improving Your Nonverbal Skills • Establish and maintain eye contact. • Use posture to show interest. • Avoid assigning nonverbal meanings out of context. • Associate with people from diverse cultures. • Appreciate the power of appearance. • Observe yourself on videotape. • Enlist friends and family. Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  26. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  27. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  28. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands 4 Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  29. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands 4 Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures 2 Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  30. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands 4 Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures 2 Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away 3 Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  31. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands 4 Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures 2 Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away 3 Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures 5 Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e

  32. 1. Insecurity 2. Defensiveness 3. Cooperation 4. Confidence 5. Nervousness 6. Frustration 6 Short breaths, “tsk” sound, clenched hands, wringing hands 4 Steepled hands, hands behind back, hands on lapels of coat, broad gestures 2 Arms crossed, sideways stance, touching and rubbing nose, rubbing eyes, drawing away 3 Open hands, upper body in sprinter’s position, sitting on edge of chair, hand-to-face gestures 5 Clearing throat, “whew” sound, whistling, smoking, fidgeting, tugging ears 1 Pinching flesh, chewing pen, biting fingernails Nonverbal Behavior and PerceptionA “Matching” Quiz Business Communication Essentials, 3e