Emergence of nation-states in Latin America 1800-1920
Brainstorm • What was the situation like in South America prior to independence from Spain and Portugal in the early 1800’s? • Political, economic, social, cultural, environment
Causes of Latin American Revolutions • Enlightenment Ideas writings of Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. • Political disempowerment Spanish colonies were run by the Council of the Indies, a group appointed by the king that met in Spain. Viceroys were elected by Spain and lived in the colonies to govern the affairs. • Spain had the right to claim priority to all colonial goods and resources – the economic policy was to Spain’s benefit • Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions. • Inspiration of American and French Revolutions. • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal fighting the Napoleonic Wars.
Inspiration of American & French Revolutions Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789 Declaration of Independence, 1776
SIMON BOLIVAR - Venezuela * Elite Creole planter Military General * Called the “George Washington of South America.” * Liberated territories of modern day Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, & Bolivia * Plan for a federated Latin America was crushed by political in-fighting.
JOSE DE SAN MARTIN - Argentina * Creole officer who had trained in European armies. * Liberated Argentina from Spanish control. * Met with Bolivar in Guayaquil in 1822. While Bolivar favored democracy, San Martin felt only monarchy could work. Turned over command. * Died in obscurity in Europe.
Bolivar & San Martin Fight for Independence!
MIGUEL HIDALGO - Mexico * Highly educated Creole priest assigned to town of Dolores. * September 16, 1810: Hidalgo rang the church bell and called upon his mestizo and indigenous parishioners to take up arms against the Spanish. * Led a rag-tag army toward Mexico City, unleashing mass slaughter of peninsulares in path. * Never made it to the capital -- Captured and shot in 1811.
JOSE MORELOS - Mexico * Successful general “With three such men as Jose Morelos, I could conquer the world.” - Napoleon Bonaparte * Established a congress which: *Created a declaration of rights *Abolished slavery *Declared equality of classes *Captured and executed in December 1815
Independence Brought More Poverty The wars disrupted trade. The wars devastated the cities and the countryside.
Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos • WHO WERE THEY? • Mid-19 century dictators military authoritarianism • Mostly wealthy creolearistocrats. • Immediately followed the fight for independence. • Posed as reformers with goals to improve the economy and better the lives of the common people.
THE CAUDILLOS * By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by caudillos. WHY? * The upper classes supported dictatorship because it kept the lower classes out of power. * The lower classes did not have experience with democracy. Dictatorship seemed normal.
Caudillos • Overthrew governments and took away basic human rights. • Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism]. • Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d’etats!]
Political and Social Problems • Latin American constitutions repeatedly failed due to lack of political experience • Creole elites kept lower classes out of political involvement due to lack of trust. • The social hierarchy based on ethnicity did not change despite the revolutions. • Women played little role in society (some opportunities for education by late 1800’s).
SOCIAL STRUCTURE Once the Spaniards were expelled, the new governments seized their lands and put them up for sale, BUT….only the creoles could afford to buy them. Thus, the creoles replaced the peninsulares at the top of the social pyramid, but other classes remained at the bottom of the ladder.
Economic Problems • Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments. Much of the industry remained foreign owned • Elites benefited from foreign involvement and had no incentive for reform
CROP-BASED ECONOMIES The U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners. Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods.
IMBALANCE OF TRADE As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure. When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America.