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  1. Admin

  2. Review

  3. Lesson 6: The United States Navy 1815-1860:Technological revolution

  4. Learning Objectives • Know the state of naval technology and its evolution during this period. • Comprehend the M. C. Perry expeditions and assess their importance to U.S maritime interests. • Comprehend the lessons of the Crimean War.

  5. Remember our Themes! • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy • Interaction between Congress and the Navy • Interservice Relations • Technology • Leadership • Strategy and Tactics • Evolution of Naval Doctrine

  6. Naval Warfighting Doctrine • Primary mission of the Navy = “Gunboat Diplomacy”. • Protect U. S. commercial interests overseas - “Showing the flag.” • Overall Doctrine • Focus on Commerce Raiding - “Guerre de Course”. • Command of the sea -- de-emphasized. • Coastal defense - Army forts constructed at entrances to ports.

  7. Board of Commissioners • Secretary of Navy William Jones overwhelmed with paperwork during War of 1812 • Asked Congress to establish three officer “advisory board” • Congress does so in 1815 • John Rodgers • Isaac Hull • David Porter

  8. The “Bureau System” • Secretary of the Navy Upshur -- 1841-42 • Proponent of expansion, modernization, and reform. • Five “bureaus” established to replace the Board of Commissioners in 1842. • Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks • Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography • Bureau of Construction, Equipment, and Repair • Bureau of Medicine and Surgery • Bureau of Provisions and Clothing

  9. “Tippecanoe and…” • Abel P. Upshur SECNAV under President Tyler • Tyler Doctrine: No one colonizes Hawaii • Bureau System • Continued Naval Increase • Guerre de Course

  10. Secretary of Navy James C. Dobbin • Hagan: “godfather of modern American Sea Power” • Modernized fleet in order to maintain “our proper and elevated rank among the great powers of the world.”

  11. Industrial Revolution • Affects naval technology. Propulsion: Sail to Steam Armor: Wood to Iron Weapons: Solid Shot to Shell

  12. Steam Power • James Watt -- Steam Engine advances made in 1770’s. • Robert Fulton - Steam-driven “paddle wheelers”. • Clermont - 1807 First practical steamship. • Demologos (Fulton) - 1814 First steam warship. • Engines and paddles take gun space and are vulnerable to attack. • M. F. Maury, Robert Stockton and M.C. Perry: • Leading naval advocates for steam power. • Fulton II - 1837 -- Commanded by M.C. Perry. • Mississippi and Missouri - 1842. • Princeton - 1842-43 “Screw” propeller warship. • Stockton brings John Ericcson from Europe to design. • All machinery below decks. • Merrimack - class “fast screw” frigates - 1850’s. • European navies also develop steam power and screws.

  13. USS Mississippi

  14. USS Princeton

  15. Armor • Korean “Turtle” Ships • Japanese-Korean War 1592-1598 • Iron deck on galleys provided protection from boarding and projectiles. • French ironclad frigate Gloire - 1859. • 36 guns in broadside. • 5,600-tons displacement. • Wooden hull with iron armor plating. • British ironclad battleship Warrior - 1860. • 40 guns in broadside. • 9,000-tons displacement. • Iron hull with iron armor plating. • First “modern” warship -- sometimes referred to as first battleship.

  16. Ordnance • USS Princeton ordnance demonstration - 1844. • “Peacemaker” improperly reinforced. • Explosion kills six, including the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy. • U.S. naval ordnance development suspended. • John Dahlgren -- “Father of Modern Naval Ordnance” • “Dahlgren Gun” - 1850’s. • Nine inch shell gun. • Mounted on Merrimac - class frigates. • Bore is smooth - still inaccurate at longer ranges. • Experiments with “rifled” cannon begin.

  17. John Dahlgren Father of Modern Naval Ordnance

  18. MatthewFontaineMaury Pathfinder of the Seas “Father of Naval Oceanography” • Studies of weather and currents allow preparation of detailed navigation charts.

  19. U.S. Navy Expedition to Japan - 1854 • Acquisition of California and Oregon - 1848. • U.S. is now a power in the Pacific Ocean. • Japan • Island nation closed to foreign influence. • Commodore M.C. Perry • U.S. Navy squadron to Japan - 1853. • Returns to Tokyo Bay - 1854. • Treaty of Kanagawa - 1854 • Protection of American seamen. • Two ports opened to American shipping.

  20. USS SusquehannaCommodore Perry’s Flagship during mission to Japan.

  21. Conclusion 1815-1860 • Period of U.S. territorial and commercial expansion. • Navy grows after War of 1812. • Supports American trade overseas. • Relative peace throughout period. • U.S. - defensive and isolationist policy for Europe. • Popular support of Navy slowly declines. • Experiments with new naval technologies.

  22. Next time: The Civil War, 1861-1865