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1. OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION. I ntroduction B ackground Time line overview Period review Conclusions. Introduction.

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  1. 1

  2. OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION • Introduction • Background • Time line overview • Period review • Conclusions

  3. Introduction Townships are defined as areas inhabited by previously disadvantaged South Africans that were designated under apartheid legislation for exclusive occupation by Africans, Coloureds and Indians. Previously called ‘locations’ Townships have a unique and distinct history, which has had a direct impact on the socio-economic structure of these areas and how people perceive and operate within them.

  4. Introduction Over the years, Townships have developed an iconic profile in South African society, as the places where the struggle for freedom was waged, where many of today’s leaders, including politicians, famous artists, business and sportsmen and women were born and grew up. They are also places where a real sense of community remains. Today Townships across the country are known for their vibrancy in various aspects such as creative industries, mass transport activity, trade promotion and cultural heritage promotion.

  5. Statistical Profile of Metropolitan Township Residents • Approximately 4,6 million households were living in Townships across South Africa in 2005 – this represents 36% of the total number of households in South Africa at the time (12,7 million). • A significant proportion of metropolitan households(50%) in 2005 were living in Townships. The extent varies per metropolitan area: • Cape Town: 46% • eThekwini (Durban): 38% • Ekhuruleni (East Rand): 70% • Johannesburg: 49% • Nelson Mandela Bay (Port Elizabeth): 67% • Tshwane (Pretoria): 42% (Stats SA 2005 data)‏

  6. Statistical Profile of Metropolitan Township Residents • Key characteristics of households living in metropolitan Townships (2005) are as follows: • Most heads of household are African(87%) and male (72%)‏ • The average age of the head of household is 43 years • Over one third (35%) of household heads have a matric or higher level of education • Average household size is 3,2 people • Levels of poverty are high with 82,4% of households spending less than R2,500 per month (Stats SA 2005 data)‏

  7. Statistical Profile of Metropolitan Township Residents Trend Analysis • Conditions in metropolitan Townships over 10 years (1996 to 2007: (Stats SA data)) generally worsened as follows: •% households in formal housing- marginal change (61% to 63% ) +2% •% households in informal housing- significantly worse (28% to 37%) -9% •% households with access to services: Piped water– Significant improvement (80% to 98%) +18% Electricity for lighting – moderate improvement (71% to 80%) +9% Refuse removed weekly– decrease in access (83% to 80%) -3% VIP toilet or better – decrease in access (88% to 82%) -6%

  8. Statistical Profile of Metropolitan Township Residents • Incomes of households in Townships generally remained static and failed to increase in line with overall national trends. For example between 1996 and 2004 the average income of households in Soweto has grown very slowly compared to the average incomes of Gauteng and South Africa, and especially of Johannesburg. While in 1996 the average income in Johannesburg was about 2,5 times as high as in Soweto, in 2004 it was nearly 4 times as high.

  9. Background • dplg and EU are undertaking the Townships Transformation Timeline Project • A time line is a method of analyzing and communicating a particular issue through reviewing history, policy and development initiatives using clear dimensions • The time line will be used as an advocacy tool to influence decision makers, planners and practitioners who work in the public space. • Methodology applied in developing the timeline: • A provisional timeline was generated. • 25 interviews were then undertaken including policy makers, implementers and specialists using the provisional timeline. Findings of the interviews were analyzed and key analytical categories for analysis were identified. • A document review and data review was undertaken in terms of the analytical categories • On the basis of these reviews the time line periods were finalized and the time line populated

  10. TIMELINE OVERVIEW The timeline has been developed using a particular methodology that reviews history, policy and development initiatives within a specified time frame. This is analyzed and documented in terms of the following key dimensions. • Influences: external factors that impacted on the period under review • Legislation and policy: statutes and policy documents passed during the period under review • Institutional roles: analysis of the role of government and civil society during the period under review • Implementation interventions: outlining the way in which the development of townships occurred • Outcomes: the key outcomes by the end of the period • Lessons: the key lessons that can be learnt.

  11. How the Timeline is structured The time line comprises six periods that are unique to the history of Townships in South Africa. Each period has been selected based on the unique events that occurred during the period with a focus on governance as the key defining factor. One key event was selected where possible to determine the end and start date of each period. 1923 Land Act – National legislation that segregated townships 1948 National Party comes into power 1976 Soweto Riots commencing mass resistance 1994 First democratic elections Ten years of democratic rule

  12. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 1900 - 1922 : Early Segregation First Townships (called ‘locations’) emerge some within towns (on a mixed race basis) but increasingly over time on the outskirts of towns. They are allowed by Government so as to ensure a labour urban areas but limited investment is made into their development. Living conditions are extremely poor. Influx control is applied to regulate labour supply for farmers and mines. Africans excluded from rights (political and land). Segregation is applied by government but on a fragmented and decentralized basis. Civil society begins to contest segregation and living conditions – new organizations are formed (African National Congress -1912, South African Communist Party – 1921 and Inkatha Freedom Party -1922), workers beginning to organize and a number of resistance campaigns are undertaken around pass laws and labour issues

  13. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 1923 - 1947 : Segregation Consolidated Townships assume increasing importance in urban areas as the reliance on African labour increases. Investment by Government in Townships increases but is still not able to keep up with demand due to high levels of urbanization. As a result informal settlements emerge and living conditions remain poor. Due to the Great Depression and the Second World War relocations of Africans from rural areas to urban areas commences. Central Government takes on a more direct role in regulating the nature of Townships through oversight and funding. Civil society increases resistance activities using deputations and petitions. The potential to mobilize in Townships emerges as do the use of strikes and boycotts.

  14. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 1948 - 1975: Apartheid Initially there is extensive development of Townships by Government – despite this informal settlements and overcrowding increases. From 1960 development slows down as the focus shifts to homeland development. Townships are segregated physically, socially and economically from towns and residents become progressively isolated and poorer as access to economic opportunities and urban amenities are restricted. Civil society becomes increasingly militant - as demonstrations increase in size and intensity, Government applies increasingly violent measures of suppression(Sharpeville massacre of 1960). Armed resistance commences. The key leadership of the ANC is captured (1963), put on trial and imprisoned. From 1972 onwards a new generation begins to demand change, mass demonstrations generally in Townships commence driven by students. International sanctions and boycotts applied.

  15. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 1976 - 1993: Apartheid Dismantled Civil unrest and international sanctions, as well as the pressures of urbanisation and a failing economy, contribute to the dismantling of apartheid policy. There is increasing acceptance that Africans will remain permanently in urban areas and 99 year leasehold and full property rights are provided respectively. Funding for housing is increased and extensive private sector housing development in Townships commences. Racial Local Authorities are established but are dysfunctional Africans are no longer restricted to living only in townships and start moving into the inner city and suburbs. South Africa is left with cities structured by apartheid, and Townships characterized by small, poor quality houses, with a large number of informal settlements, poor service infrastructure and amenities and lack of affordable public transportation.

  16. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 1994 - 2004: Democratisation Local Authorities undergo substantial transformation resulting in constraints in respect of capacity and processes. Significant investment into some Townships occurs through the Special Integrated Presidential Projects (SIPS) and Urban Renewal Programme (URP) and sectoral initiatives. Success is variable and impact limited. Access to housing, services and amenities improves but Townships remain separate and marginalized. A key difficulty that persists is capacity and coordination across and within spheres of government. South Africa reflects ‘two economies in one country’ – one white and wealthy (formal-first economy), the over overwhelmingly black and poverty stricken (informal-second economy). Townships fall into the latter.

  17. TIMELINE OVERVIEW 2005 - 2009: Towards Urban Integration The URP continues to be implemented – Provinces and Municipalities start replicating the methodology but funding and capacity remain key constraints. Implementation of the sectoral programmes impacts positively on Townships. However upgrading of Townships continues to be largelyuncoordinated. Townships still remain marginalized and isolated within towns and cities. Some recognition that Townships need to be significantly transformed and integrated into urban areas. The Neighbourhood Development Partnership Grantlaunched. The emphasis of development initiatives in Townships gradually shiftsto recognition of the critical need for integration of Townships into the towns and cities. Better and more comprehensive planning and budgeting pursued(through IDPs and the National Spatial Development Perspective). Housing Development Agency with a focus on integrated human settlements launched. The roles of Local and Provincial Government in respect of the development of Townships remains unclear with a greater devolution of responsibility towards Local Government but generally with inadequate authority, capacity and funding. There is increasing recognition of the roleof the private sector in developing Townships. However substantial tensions exist around the impact of private investment and business activities on existing township business interests.

  18. 1900 – 1922 Early Segregation

  19. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation INFLUENCES, LEGISLATION AND POLICY Influences • 1910:South Africa becomes a Union • 1913 : Land Act passed: Segregates land within South Africa . Africans unable to farm on a sustainable basis and seek work in the cities • 1914 – 1918: First World War: Increased work opportunities, further stimulates African migration into towns. National Party founded. • 1913 – 1923: Extensive national government debate on urban policy particularly as regards the status of urban Africans and control of their movement. Increasingly accepted view emerges that Africans should not be recognized as permanent in urban areas, as this could lead to voting rights and undermine white supremacy.

  20. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation INFLUENCES, LEGISLATION AND POLICY Legislation and policy • 1866: Pass Law: Any African found outside a designated residential area without a pass could be arrested • 1908: Native Beer Act: Empowered Natal Municipalities to utilize the profits from their monopoly sale of beer to Africans for the erection of houses, hospitals and other facilities for Africans • 1913: Black Land Act : Prohibits Africans from owning or renting land outside of designed ‘reserves’ which comprise 7,6% of all land in South Africa • 1920: The Housing Act : Introduced Central Housing Board to regulate local authority housing development for Africans, Coloured and Indians. The Board’s mandate is to supervise/administer the lending of government funds for housing developments.

  21. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Government 1900 – 1913: • Each colony has its own Parliament • Towns are managed by a Municipal Authority • Racial segregation is applied on an adhoc basis at Municipal level 1913 onwards: • National Government is established and commences to enforce racial segregation • Townships are managed by a Municipal Authority but increasingly within the requirements of national legislation and institutions

  22. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Civil society • Organizations to oppose restrictions begin to emerge: • African National Congress (called the South African Native National Convention) formed in 1912 • South African Communist Party (called the Communist Party of South Africa) formed in 1921 • Inkatha Freedom Party (called the Inkatha yeNkululedo ye Sizwe) formed in 1922. • Workers beginning to organize • Industrial and Commercial Workers Union formed 1919. • A number of resistance campaigns undertaken around pass laws and labour issues: • 1913 : African and Indian women undertake passive resistance campaigns against passes. • 1920: Militant strike by 70,000 African miners • 1914, 1919: ANC delegations to Britain on Land Act • In 1922 White Miners undertake an armed rebellion (also called the Rand Rebellion or Red Rebellion) to protest against the mines replacing White workers with cheaper African workers. About 200 people were killed and more than 1,000 people were injured. The rebellion resulted in a number of Acts protecting skilled jobs for Whites.

  23. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation IMPLEMENTATION INTERVENTIONS • Prior to 1910 racial segregation not strictly enforced so some mixed areas emerge (Vrededorp, Sophiatown, etc) within the borders of towns close to places of work. • From 1913 onwards, Town Councils start to pass ordinances relating to the establishment and administration of ‘locations’ including provision of services and levying of rates and other charges. Townships like Ndabeni (formally Uitvlugt) and Klipspruit developed • Approach to land rights varies – in some Provinces (Cape and Transvaal) freehold title provided. • Central Housing Board established to supervise/administer housing developments for Africans, Indians and Coloureds. • Loan funding from government provided to municipalities for housing developments – no subsidies provides. • Funds from beer sales to Africans used for the development of houses, services and amenities commences.

  24. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation OUTCOMES • First Townships (locations) emerge some within towns (on a mixed race basis) but increasingly over time on the outskirts of towns. They are allowed by Government so as to ensure a labour force in urban areas. • Influx control applied so as to regulate labour supply for farmers and mines • Africans excluded from rights (political and land)‏ • Living conditions in Townships extremely poor • Civil society emerges to contest segregation and poor living conditions (Passive resistance, strikes and delegations)‏

  25. 1900 – 1922Early Segregation LESSONS • An absence of a national framework resulted in regional differences in the establishment and administration of Townships. • Once national legislation promulgated, together with funding the approach to Townships is significantly influenced. • Limitations on access to land, economic opportunities and social services substantially reinforced poverty in the Townships.

  26. 1923 - 1947 Segregation Consolidated

  27. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation INFLUENCES • 1924 : Nationalist Party wins national elections (in a coalition with the South African Labour Party) and enacts laws to further protect the white minority and enforce segregation. • 1929- 1932 : The Great Depression forces both Whites and Blacks to move to urban areas. • 1940 – 45: World War II increases work opportunities and further stimulates African migration into towns. • 1946 : Unprecedented labour demand spurred by World War II forces the government to slacken influx control laws-migration to towns becomes easier.

  28. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation LEGISLATION AND POLICY • 1923: Native (Black) Urban Areas : Local Authorities empowered to set aside land for Townships; keep separate Native Reserve Accounts, apply influx control and manufacture and sell beer to Africans. Advisory Boards established to represent African opinion. • 1927 : Black (Native) Administration Act : Minister empowered to carry out forced removals. • 1934 : Slums Act : Demolition of slums • 1936: Development Trust and Land Act : Expands reserves to total of 13,6% of SA and authorizes elimination of ‘black spots’ • 1937 : Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act : Africans prohibited from acquiring land in urban areas • 1945: Natives (Urban Areas) Consolidation Act : Strengthens influx control • 1945: A Housing (Emergency Powers) Act : Minister empowered to expropriate land, buy materials, and appoint contractors.

  29. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Government • Local Government continues to be responsible for the development and administration of Townships –many set up dedicated Departments. • Stricter Central Government oversight of Townships through: • Legislative prescription • Increased powers of the Central Housing Board (Housing Commission)‏ • Provision of funding for housing • Central Government itself begins to develop Township areas where Local Government does not perform. • Advisory Boards established as a first attempt at African representation on Township matters–Boards had limited powers and were ineffective.

  30. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Civil society • Civil society starts to consolidate around common views on the rights of Africans, Coloureds and Indians • Resistance campaigns increase with a focus on Pass Laws and workers rights – but moderate in the form of petitions and deputations • Government commences violent suppression of resisters. • Increased support and cooperation by civil society groupings across different racial groups • First mobilization in Townships occurs around living conditions (cost of transport) - for example the Alexandra Bus Boycotts

  31. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation IMPLEMENTATION INTERVENTIONS • Local Authorities actively undertake development comprising Hostels, Locations (Townships), and villages (for Africans who build their own dwellings). Townships such as the Western and Eastern Native Townships, Orlando East, Lamont, Baumanville and Cato Manor are developed. • No freehold title provided – access to land on a rental basis only • Native Reserve Accounts established—into which all moneys relating to Townships are accounted. • Local Authorities are increasingly unable to meet their financial obligations in respect of Townships without a substantial contribution from Central Government and profits from the sale of beer. • Relocations commence of Africans living in white areas – enforcement weak and relocations undertaken on a voluntary basis. • Temporary controlled squatting applied to address shortage of housing. • Central Government extends subsidized loans for housing.

  32. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation OUTCOMES • Townships begin to assume an increasing importance in the urban areas as the reliance on African labour increases. • Increased investment by Central Government in housing and infrastructure. • Local Authorities still not able to keep up with demand due to high levels of urbanization • Informal settlements and overcrowding in existing housing results in poor living conditions • Central Government takes on a more direct role in housing developments in Townships • Relocations commence - moving Africans living in white areas into the Townships. • Civil society increasingly active in contesting segregation and living conditions, but predominantly using moderate mechanisms of deputations and petitions. The Alexandra Bus Boycott indicate the power of mobilization in the Townships.

  33. 1900 – 1922Segregation Consolidation LESSONS • Economic pressures result in increased African urbanization in spite of influx control. This is reflected in growing Townships and the increased inadequacy of housing and services. • Local Authoritiesestablish specialized dedicated Township administrationunits in response to the increased demand to develop and administer Townships. • Central Government is increasingly dominant in defining local governments approach to developing Townships. As the task gets bigger, the dependence of Local Authorities on Central Government increases - particularly for financial support.

  34. 1948 – 1975 Apartheid

  35. 1948 – 1975 Apartheid INFLUENCES •1948: The National Party wins national elections – the era of strict apartheid begins. •1948- 58: Existing segregation policies are further reinforced and institutionalized through legislation – the population is racially segregated in all aspects of life •1960 – 1975: Implementation of homeland policy commences. •1948–1975:Contestation by civil society increases. Government suppresses protestors. •1960: The Sharpeville massacre occurs whereby the police open fire on protesters killing more than 60 people and resulting in extensive international and national outrage •1961: On the 31 May South Africa became a republic •1970 onwards: South Africa increasingly subject to boycotts and sanctions. This results in cultural and sporting isolation and economic decline.

  36. 1948 – 1975Apartheid LEGISLATION AND POLICY • 1950: Group Areas Act: Provided for areas to be declared for exclusive use of one particular racial group. • 1951 Bantu Authorities Act: Established the homelands. • 1952: Black (Native) Laws Amendment Act: All black persons required to carry passes and cannot stay in an urban area longer than seventy-two hours • 1952: Blacks (Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act: Repealed the pass laws and replaced them with reference books • 1953: Reservation of Separate Amenities Act: Public facilities and transport reserved for particular race groups. • 1954: Blacks Resettlement Act: Established a Resettlement Board to remove blacks ‘black spots’. • 1957 : Housing Act: Established a Bantu Housing Board • 1961: Urban Blacks Council Act: The first provision for black ‘self-government' in the urban Townships. • 1971: Black Affairs Administration Act: Extended provisions for black self-government in Townships.

  37. 1948 – 1975Apartheid INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Government • 1948—1971: Local Authorities continue to have direct responsibility for Townships; Central Government enforces complianceto national policy and has substantial powers over the racial designation of areas. Extensive separation of Government authority and funding by race occurs. • 1971 onwards: Administration of African Townships taken over by Central Government Agencies (Administration Boards). A second attempt at providing for political representation in the Townships occurs with Urban Bantu Councils replacingAdvisory Boards. These are also ineffective.

  38. 1948 – 1975Apartheid INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Civil Society • Extensivepassive (non-violent) resistance (for example the Defiance Campaign 1950 – 1953) occurs. • The Freedom Charter (1955) is developed and signed. • As demonstrations increase in size and intensity, Government applies increasingly violent measures of suppression(Sharpeville massacre of 1960). Leaders and organizations are increasingly harassed-in 1960 the ANC and PAC and their leaders arebanned. First State of Emergency is declared. Umkhonto we Sizwe formed (1961) and armed resistance commences. The key leadership of the ANC is captured (1963), put on trial and imprisoned. • 1972 onwards: a new generation begins to demand change, mass demonstrations generally in Townships commence driven by students.

  39. 1948 – 1975Apartheid IMPLEMENTATION INTERVENTIONS • 1948 and 1960:Extensive development of Townships occurs linked to removals from ‘white areas’. Most Townships that exist today are developed during this period (such as Moletsane, Lenasia, KwaMashu, Mamelodi, Thokoza and KwaThema). • Clear specifications for Townships set out in national legislation. • Site to be adequate distance from white town and separated by an industrial and open buffer area • Site should be able to expand away from white area • Site to be within easy distance from town for transport purposes, which should be rail rather than road. One road should connect township to town preferably running through industrial area

  40. 1948 – 1975Apartheid IMPLEMENTATION INTERVENTIONS - Housing types, standards and design specified. Housing provided in the form of small ‘matchbox’ houses and hostels. Dedicated funding allocated for the first time from Central Government for housing into the National Housing Fund. • 1960—1975: Development of Townships slows down as Government shifts focus to homeland development. Removals out of ‘white areas’ increase significantly, but now into homeland townships. • Direct administration of Townships by Central Government effected through the establishment of centrally appointed Administration Boards that operated independently from the local authorities.

  41. 1948 – 1975Apartheid OUTCOMES • Townships areseparated physically, socially and economically from the town. Township residents become increasingly isolated and poorer as access to economic opportunities and urban amenities were restricted. • While influx control is strictly applied, informal settlements and overcrowding in existing stock in Townships increase. • Civil society becomes increasingly mobilized and militant over the period in its efforts to contest segregation and poor living conditions – mass mobilization occurs despite increased suppression by the state. • International condemnation and isolation continues with sanctions through the United Nations and embargoes.

  42. 1948 – 1975Apartheid LESSONS • Clear directionby Central Governmentlinked to funding, strong oversight and the authority and will to intervene enabled the implementation of contentious and unpopular policies. However the ability to maintain such policies centrally becomes increasingly difficult. • Direct establishment and administration of Townships by central government agencies expedited the implementation of Apartheid policy. However this became increasingly dysfunctional over time as centralized accountability and conflicts with local government made these arrangements unsustainable. • Governance structures without a democraticfoundation will always lack credibility, integrity and the ability to govern or represent.

  43. 1976 – 1993 Apartheid Dismantled

  44. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled INFLUENCES • 1976-1989: Widespread and extended uprisings at home, increased international isolation and a severely depressed economy places pressure on government to begin to dismantle apartheidpolicies. • 1986:Influx control is removed. • 1989-1991:The ANC, PAC and key leaders are unbanned. • 1990–1991: Multi party negotiations for the transfer of power undertaken. In anticipation of the transfer migration into towns and cities increases significantly. • 1990–1993: A power struggle between ANC and Inkatha Freedom Party results in thousands of deaths. This occurred in the Townships in the form of violent clashes between Hostel Dwellers (Inkatha) and surrounding communities (ANC). • 1992-1993:The Multi–Party Negotiations results in an interim constitution. An All-White Referendum is held and overwhelming supports the reform embodied in the interim constitution. • 1991–1995: National negotiating forums are established to formulate new national policy for housing, local government, water, etc. Local forums negotiate interim arrangements for local government

  45. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled LEGISLATION AND POLICY 1977: Community Councils Act: Established community councils in certain black townships. 1978: Blacks (Urban Areas) Amendment Act: Introduced a ninety-nine-year leasehold system. 1979: State Land Disposal Act: Set out mechanisms for the disposal of state land. 1982: Black Local Authorities Act: Provided for the establishment of town councils for blacks 1984: Commission of Inquiry into Township Establishment and Related Matters: Made recommendations on expediting township establishment 1984: Black Communities Development Act: Introduced freehold ownership for Africans 1986: Black Communities Development Amendment Act: Expanded on the provision of freehold rights to urban Africans  1991: Black Communities Development Amendment Act: Provided for the conversion of leasehold into ownership. 1993: Local Government Transition Act: Provided for revised interim measures for the restructuring of local government.

  46. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Government 1976 – 1983: Administration Boards administer Townships but are ineffective due to: • Inadequate financial resources partly due to the destruction of beer halls. Revenue from the sale of beer stops during this period. • Hamstrung by red tape and unable to respond efficiently to local needs • No legitimacy because of they are not-democratic institutions. 1983 - 1994:Numerous separate area and racially based local authoritiesare introduced-each is required to generate their own revenue. In Townships these ‘Local Authorities’ lacked legitimacy and are met with extensive civil resistance and widespread payment boycotts.

  47. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled INSTITUTIONAL ROLES Civil Society • 1976 – 1980 : Wide-Spread Mobilization • Country becomes increasingly ungovernable. • New student leadership emerges. • 1980 – 1993 : New Mass Movements • Community resistance groups – the ‘civics’ emerge. • Widespread payment boycott of rents, rates and services charges and later of home loan repayments to the banks. • The United Democratic Front founded in 1983 and operates until 1990. • South African National Civic Organization (SANCO)- a second broad structure for civics emerges. • When Black Local Authorities collapse Civics take on the tasks of local government . Controversial ‘People’s Courts’ established. • Civic’s (through SANCO) negotiate new policies and structure of local government prior to the transfer of power.

  48. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled IMPLEMENTATION INTERVENTIONS • Housing provision in Townships is reformed: Africans are able to acquire registered title to land and housing in Townships. Funding for housing is increased substantially both from the public sector and the private sector (home loans). Extensive private sector housing development commences. Some self help and site and service schemes are also undertaken. Tenants in Township houses are offered the option to purchase their houses. • Racial Local Authorities are established: The governance of each urban area is fragmented into racially based representative councils and administrations. The intervention lacked legitimacy and financial sustainability and failed. • Broad based national sectoral and local area based negotiating forums were established to formulate policies and arrangements around most aspects pertinent to the Townships. These forums were highly participative and assisted in building consensus at least for the transition to a democratic government.

  49. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled OUTCOMES • Township residents are no longer restricted to living in Townships and some of the wealthier households start to move into other areas of the cities and towns. • South Africa is left with a legacy of cities and towns structured by apartheid with inefficient, inverted density patterns and the majority of the city’s population far from employment centers resulting in a heavy reliance on transport. There is racial segregation of urban areas. • Townships are characterized by small houses of low standard and poor quality, high levels of informal settlements, poor services, infrastructure and amenities and poor transportation routes. • Local Authorities are dysfunctional.

  50. 1976 – 1993Apartheid Dismantled LESSONS • Local government structures that lack political legitimacy or financial capacity cannot effectively fulfill a local government mandate. The racial or administrative segregation of local government will very quickly prove to be dysfunctional. • The negative legacy of apartheid on the structure of SA’s cities and towns and on the functioning of local government is enormous and will require substantial time and focused effort to remedy.

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