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Intercultural Development

Intercultural Development

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Intercultural Development

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  1. Intercultural Development Chapter Five Considering the Growth of Self and Others (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  2. Developmental Models of Ethnic and Racial Identity • What does it mean to change over time, to see and interact in the world from a new and different perspective, often as a result of direct experience and maturation? • Developmental models provide a schema within which to consider such changes (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  3. Developmental Models in the Study of Culture • These models have recently begun to emerge, particularly with respect to: • Ethnic Identity: generally defined on the basis of cultural criteria (customs, language) • Racial Identity: generally defined on the basis of physical criteria (skin color, facial features) • One may identify oneself with one or the other, or both (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  4. Models of Ethnic and Racial Identity • Cross/Spring five-stage model: • Pre-encounter: internalization of negative stereotypes by mainstream society • Encounter: confrontation by an incident that forces questioning (e.g., racial profiling) • Immersion/Emersion: assumption of a new ethnic identity, loss of self-hatred con’t. (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  5. Immersion: total involvement in the ethnic culture—active in discussion, organizations; highly ethnocentric • Internalization: recognition of and comfort in living in two worlds; becoming bicultural, or multicultural; can be both accepting and critical of mainstream culture (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  6. James Banks’s Model of Ethnic Development • Ethnic psychological captivity • Ethnic encapsulation • Ethnic identify clarification • Biethnicity: individuals have a strong sense of their own ethnic identity as well as a healthy understanding and respect for others con’t. Similar to Cross’s model (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  7. James Banks’s Model of Ethnic Development • Multiethnicity: individual has a healthy understanding and appreciation of many groups; the ideal for an ethnically pluralistic society like the United States • Globalism and Global Competency: individuals reflect positive ethnic, national, and global identities while demonstrating the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and abilities to function effectively in ethnic cultures from a variety of contexts (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  8. Intercultural Competence • Interculturally competent people have three things in common: • They are able to manage the psychological stress that accompanies most intercultural interactions • They are able to communicate effectively across cultures—verbally and nonverbally • They are able to develop and maintain new and essential interpersonal relationships (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  9. Intercultural Skills • The ability to respond to others in a nonjudgmental manner • The ability to mediate conflicts and solve problems • The ability to motivate others in the context of cultural values • The ability to adapt to and value cultural differences (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  10. Developing Intercultural Sensitivity • Bennett’s developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS) provides a framework for understanding individual development and awareness along a continuum from highly ethnocentric to highly ethnorelative • In general, an increase in cultural awareness is accompanied by improved cognitive sophistication (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  11. Ethnocentric side Denial: inability to see cultural differences Defense: recognition of cultural differences, but negative evaluations of most Minimization: acceptance of superficial cultural differences, but belief that all human beings are essentially the same Ethnorelative side Acceptance: ability to recognize and appreciate cultural differences on their own terms Adaptation: sees cultural categories as more flexible; becomes more competent in ability to communicate Integration: (rarely achieved) moves easily among multiple perspectives Stages in Bennett’s Model (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e

  12. Something to Think About “One of the higher callings for young people in the coming century will be working to increase intercultural understanding. Such people will be the missionaries of the age, spreading light among groups. . .by giving them a modern vision of the new global community.” —Carl Coon (c) 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.  All rights reserved. Cushner/McClelland/Safford, Human Diversity in Education, 5/e