welcome to the world of • VIRTUAL RESEARCH
HARRY, Before and after LOST IN DATA IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD
What is research ? • RESEARCH, IN AND OF ITSELF, IS A • PHILOSOPHICAL METHODOLOGY, IN A • SCIENTIFIC FORM GUIDED BY A SPECIALIZED • ETHICAL SET OF STANDARDS.
POINTS OF RESEARCH • It is based on the work of others. • It can be replicated. • It is generalizable to other settings. • It is based on some logical rationale and tied to theory. • It is doable! • It generates new questions or is cyclical in nature. • It is incremental. • It is an apolitical activity that should be undertaken for the betterment of society. • Neil J. Salkind, Exploring Research, (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000), p.3
Types of research-I • BASIC RESEARCH • The research which is done for knowledge enhancement, the research which does not have immediate commercial potential. The research which is done for human welfare, animal welfare and plant kingdom welfare. It is called basic,pure,fundamental research. The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge, not to create or invent something. • APPLIED RESEARCH • Applied research is designed to solve practical problem of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledges sake. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition. It focus on analysis and solving social and real life problems. This research is generally conducted on large scale basis, it is expensive.
TYPES OF RESEARCH ii • QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH • Quantitative research aim to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, “quantitative research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships”. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. • QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. • Qualitative research presents non-qualitative type of analysis. Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing and interpreting data by observing what people do and say. Qualitative research research refers to the meanings, definitions, characteristics, symbols, metaphors, and description of things. Qualitative research is much more subjective and uses very different methods of collecting information,mainly individual, in depth interviews and focus groups. The nature of this type of research is exploratory and open ended.
Research as a humanistic philosophy • The philosophy of research is simply the application of human standards to what is believed to be the essence of the science of research and then explaining it in a manner that is understandable.
Research as a science • David Hume once tied the definition of research to the concept of legal positivism, today this concept has been expanded to: • Research as a science is a systematic and formulated knowledge of a specified type, or, on a specified subject.
THE ETHICS OF RESEARCH • "Other influential research ethics policies include the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors), the Chemist's Code of Conduct (American Chemical Society), Code of Ethics (American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science) Ethical Principles of Psychologists (American Psychological Association), Statements on Ethics and Professional Responsibility (American Anthropological Association), Statement on Professional Ethics (American Association of University Professors), the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association)." http://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/bioethics/whatis/
A new set of rules • FIRST OF ALL WE NEED TO FIND A PATH TO ENTER RESEARCH AS HUMANS AND ACTUALLY BE PART OF THE PROCESS RATHER THAN A MERE PARTICIPANT SEEKING A GOAL. • SECONDLY, WE MUST USE OUR OWN CRITICAL AND CREATIVE THINKING ABILITIES TO MAKE CHANGES AND ALTER DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH FROM AN INTERIOR PERSPECTIVE. • THIRD, WE MUST KEEP IN MIND ALL OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS AVAILABLE TO US; WHETHER IT BE THE INTERNET OR EVEN VIRTUAL REALITY GAMES. • FOURTH, OUR IMAGINATIONS MUST BE ALLOWED TO EVOLVE AT LIGHTNING SPEED WHILE THIS PROCESS IF ONGOING. • FIFTH, AS JAMES MICHENER ONCE SAID, A GOOD AUTHOR GETS “INSIDE THE SKIN OF HIS CHARACTERS”, WELL WE MUST GET INSIDE THE PROVERBIAL SKIN OF THE PEOPLE WE ARE RESEARCHING, LIVE THROUGH THE EVENTS OF THE PAST, AND IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, LIVE THE EXPERIMENTATION.
RESEARCHISEASY.COMThe way to researching made easy & fun.......... • Navigate your way to fun & learning • _______________________ • 1. GENERAL INFORMATION • 2. EDUCATORS • 3. PARENTS • 4. STUDENTS • A. ELEMENTARY • B. LEVEL ONE: (JUNIOR HIGH) • C.LEVEL TWO: ( HIGH SCHOOL) • D. LEVEL THREE: (COLLEGE) • AS A STUDENT, HAVE YOU EVER BEEN IN A CLASS AND DIRECTED BY YOUR TEACHER TO RESEARCH AND WRITE A PAPER ON A SUBJECT THAT YOU DO NOT CARE FOR? • AS A TEACHER, HAVE YOU EVER BEEN FACED WITH GIVING A RESEARCH ASSIGNMENT THAT YOU DO NOT PARTICULARY LIKE THE SUBJECT MATTER? • AS A PARENT HAVE YOU EVER BEEN REGALED BY YOUR CHILD/YOUNG ADULT ABOUT A RESEARCH PROJECT THAT THEY HAVE NO INTEREST IN AT ALL & HAVE NO IDEA HOW TO BEGIN THEIR RESEARCH?
TYPES OF VARIABLES i • DEPENDENT VARIABLES • . . . show the effect of manipulating or introducing the independent variables. For example, if the independent variable is the use or non-use of a new language teaching procedure, then the dependent variable might be students' scores on a test of the content taught using that procedure. In other words, the variation in the dependent variable depends on the variation in the independent variable. • INDEPENDENT VARIABLES • . . . are those that the researcher has control over. This "control" may involve manipulating existing variables (e.g., modifying existing methods of instruction) or introducing new variables (e.g., adopting a totally new method for some sections of a class) in the research setting. Whatever the case may be, the researcher expects that the independent variable(s) will have some effect on (or relationship with) the dependent variables. • INTERVENING VARIABLES • . . . refer to abstract processes that are not directly observable but that link the independent and dependent variables. In language learning and teaching, they are usually inside the subjects' heads, including various language learning processes which the researcher cannot observe. For example, if the use of a particular teaching technique is the independent variable and mastery of the objectives is the dependent variable, then the language learning processes used by the subjects are the intervening variables. • MODERATOR VARIABLES • . . . affect the relationship between the independent and dependent variables by modifying the effect of the intervening variable(s). Unlike extraneous variables, moderator variables are measured and taken into consideration. Typical moderator variables in TESL and language acquisition research (when they are not the major focus of the study) include the sex, age, culture, or language proficiency of the subjects.
TYPES OF VARIABLES ii • CONTROL VARIABLES • Language learning and teaching are very complex processes. It is not possible to consider every variable in a single study. Therefore, the variables that are not measured in a particular study must be held constant, neutralized/balanced, or eliminated, so they will not have a biasing effect on the other variables. Variables that have been controlled in this way are called control variables. • EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES • . . . are those factors in the research environment which may have an effect on the dependent variable(s) but which are not controlled. Extraneous variables are dangerous. They may damage a study's validity, making it impossible to know whether the effects were caused by the independent and moderator variables or some extraneous factor. If they cannot be controlled, extraneous variables must at least be taken into consideration when interpreting results.