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The Nervous System

The Nervous System. By: Muhammad Butt, Colin Ciszewski , SharlynnParikh,JustineTumacder. Types. Central Nervous System (CNS). Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Diagram. Types of Neurons.

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The Nervous System

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  1. The Nervous System By: Muhammad Butt, Colin Ciszewski, SharlynnParikh,JustineTumacder

  2. Types Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  3. Diagram

  4. Types of Neurons • Sensory neuron - nerve cells that carries impulses from a sense receptor to the brain or spinal cord. • Relay neuron- The nerve cell that connects sensory and motor neurons • Motor neuron- The nerve cell that transmits impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland Neuron video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JrdaEGwGu-w (start at 1:10) Neurotransmission-https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p5zFgT4aofA

  5. Central Nervous System (CNS) • Consists of brain and spinal cord • Major parts of the brain are: • Forebrain • Midbrain • hindbrain • Forebrain – contains the thalamus and hypothalamus, as well as the cerebrum, which is the largest part of brain • Fxns: receiving and processing sensory information, thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language, and controlling motor function

  6. CNS Cont. • Midbrain – with the hindbrain, they make up the brainstem. Midbrain connects the hindbrain and forebrain through the brainstem • Fxns in auditory and visual response, and motor function • Hindbrain – extends from spinal cord. It contains the pons and cerebellum • Fxns: maintain balance, movement coordination, and involved in senses information • Spinal cord – transmits messages from the brain to areas of the body and vice versa. The nerves of the spinal cord are grouped into bundles, creating nerve fibers

  7. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • PNS mainly connects CNS and environmental stimuli to allow body to respond properly. • PNS divided into 2 systems: • Somatic Nervous System: governs voluntary actions and body reflexes • Autonomic Nervous System: regulates involuntary actions such as breathing and digestion

  8. Somatic Nervous System • Controls all voluntary movements • Consists of 3 parts: • Spinal Nerves: Peripheral nerves that carry sensory information into spinal cord and motor commands • Cranial Nerves: Nerve fibers that carry information from and to the brainstem. The information carried are related to smell, taste, vision, eye muscles, ears, etc • Association Nerves: integrate sensory input and motor output

  9. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) • Functions as a control system, mostly below the level of consciousness • Controls heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupil dilation, perspiration, and sexual arousal • ANS is divided into 2 systems: • Parasympathetic Nervous System • Sympathetic Nervous System

  10. Sympathetic Nervous System • “Fight-or-Flight” System • Main function is to prepare your body in emergencies and helps you in stressful situations • A person in a fight-or-flight mode may have increased blood pressure, breathing rate, and heart rate, dilated pupils, run faster, and have an adrenaline rush

  11. Parasympathetic Nervous System • “Rest-and-digest” System • Its major function is to keep the body in its normal state by helping the body breath regularly, excrete hormones, and eat and digest food.

  12. Diseases • Multiple Sclerosis • Huntington’s Disease • Aphasia • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

  13. Multiple Sclerosis • Chronic inflammation disease of CNS where the body’s immune system eats myelin sheath • Myelin sheath, protective cover of nerve fibers, is lost and as a result, communication between brain, spinal cord, and rest of the body is interrupted • Damaged myelin = travelling impulses is slowed or blocked • Causes: viruses, environmental factors, genetic factors, autoimmune disorders

  14. Multiple Sclerosis Cont. • Symptoms: • Loss of vision • Weakness in limbs • Fatigue • Slurred speech • Electric shock sensations from certain head movements • Treatments: • To slow progress: Beta interferon, type of drugs that reduces number and severity of attacks • To treat symptoms: physical therapy, muscle relaxants, and medication to reduce fatigue

  15. Huntington’s Disease • Inherited disorder affecting people mostly in their 40’s and 50’s • Affects spinal cord and brain, where abnormal cells are found • Huntington is formed from an abnormal gene which prevents brain cells from protecting themselves against toxic chemicals. • This worsens when the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain decrease

  16. Huntington’s Disease Cont. • Symptoms: • uncontrollable jerky movements • rapid eye movements • memory problems • change in mood • Death occurs 15 – 20 yrs after first symptoms • No cure • Medicine for treating symptoms: • Depression: Tricyclic antidepressants • Movement disorders: drugs that also treat parkinsonism and dystonia • Antisocial behavior: drugs such as Chlorpromazine

  17. Aphasia • Neurological disorder due to damage on language parts of the brain from usually a stroke or brain damage • Inability to speak and/or understand written and spoken language • Affects mostly adults and those who experienced stroke • Causes: • usually stroke • brain injury • brain tumor • symptom of epilepsy

  18. Aphasia Cont. • During stroke, the most common cause, brain tissues are damaged due to lack of oxygen and blood to the brain • Treatment: • Language therapy • Rehabilitation with speech pathologist • Patient practices how to read, write, follow directions, and repeat what they hear https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1aplTvEQ6ew

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) • “Lou Gehrig’s Disease” • A-myo-trophic: No muscle nourishment • Motor neurons from the brain and spinal cord that connect to muscles are affected • Degeneration of motor neurons leads to their death. As a result, control of muscle movement is lost • Degenerated motor neurons cannot send impulses to muscle fibers. Therefore, muscles do not receive nourishment and begins to atrophy as a result • Effect: Paralyzed in later stages

  20. ALS Cont. • Symptoms: • Muscle weakness in arms, legs, muscles used in talking, breathing, swallowing • Difficulty breathing and swallowing • Muscle cramping • Currently no cure or treatment (death usually occurs 3-5 years after diagnosis) • Certain drugs, such as riluzole, slows ALS progression

  21. Links • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x4PPZCLnVkA- Crash course- nervous system • http://www.livescience.com/22665-nervous-system.html

  22. Works Cited • http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/ss/central-nervous-system.htm • https://www.boundless.com/physiology/autonomic-nervous-system-ans/introduction-to-autonomic-nervous-system/somatic-compared-to-autonomic-nervous-system/ • https://www.boundless.com/psychology/the-brain-and-behavior/the-nervous-system/the-peripheral-nervous-system-pns/ • http://voices.yahoo.com/major-functions-sympathetic-parasympathetic-8876015.html?cat=4 • http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/body/factfiles/peripheralnervoussystem/peripheral_nervous_system.shtml • http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/multiple-sclerosis/basics/definition/con-20026689 • http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/huntingtons.htm • http://www.webmd.com/brain/aphasia-causes-symptoms-types-treatments • http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Aphasia/Pages/Causes.aspx • http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html

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