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Vertebrates

Vertebrates

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Vertebrates

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  1. Vertebrates

  2. The Origin of Tetrapods • The first vertebrates on land were amphibians in the Devonian • May have arose from the rhipidistian (features) or a lungfish (DNA)

  3. Origin of Tetrapods

  4. Origin of Tetrapods

  5. Classification • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Superclass: Gnathostomata • Class: Amphibia • Order: Urodela (Salamanders) • Order: Anurans (Frogs and Toads) • Order: Apodans (Caecilians)

  6. Class: Amphibia • Two lives • refers to metamorphosis of many frogs • Skin smooth and moist (cutaneous respiration) • Three chambered heart with a double circulation system • Mesolecithal eggs with jelly-like membrane

  7. Order: Urodela • 400 species • Salamanders • Retain their tail as adults • Limbs are at right angles to the body • Carnivorous

  8. Order: Anurans • 3500 species • Frogs and Toads • Lose their tail as adults • Hind limbs are adapted for jumping • Tongue connected to front of mouth • Secrete mucus

  9. Order: Apodans • 150 species • Caecilians • Legless and blind

  10. Evolution of the Amniotic Egg • Allows animals to complete their entire life cycle on land • Has shell that retains water (or is lost when kept inside mammals) • Specialized extraembryonic membranes (not part of the animal)

  11. Evolution of the Amniotic Egg • Amnion - Protects from dehydration and mechanical shock • Yolk Sac - Nutrient storage • Albumin - Nutrient storage • Allantois - stores waste, gas exchange • Chorion - gas exchange

  12. Amniotes

  13. Amniotes

  14. Tough, dry skin Amniotic egg Crushing or gripping jaws Copulatory organs More efficient circulatory system with a higher blood pressure More developed lungs (thoracic breathing) Better water conservation Better body support and limbs Better nervous system How Reptiles differ from Amphibians

  15. Classification • Phylum: Chordata • Subphylum: Vertebrata • Superclass: Gnathostomata • Class: Reptilia (not real) • Class: Testudines (Turtles and Tortoises) • Class: Spenodontia (Tuataras) • Class: Squamata (Lizards and Snakes) • Class: Crocodilia (Crocodiles and Alligators)

  16. Reptile Radiation • Synapsids (therapsids) - led to mammals • Sauropsids • Anapsids (turtles) • Diapsids (all others)

  17. Class: Testudines (Chelonia) • Evolved on land and returned to water (lay eggs on land) • Protective Shell • Carapace • Plastron

  18. Class: Sphenodontia • Tuataras • Two living species (New Zealand) • Not a True Lizard (no external ears) • Very Primitive (similar to mesozoic reptiles • Well developed eye below skin?

  19. Class: Squamata • Lizards • geckos, iguanas, skinks, chameleons • terrestrial, burrowing, aquatic, arboreal • moveable eyelids • Paired copulatory organs • Lower jaw not attached to skull

  20. Class: Squamata

  21. Class: Squamata

  22. Class: Squamata

  23. Class: Squamata

  24. Class: Squamata • Snakes • Lack limbs • Lack moveable eyelids • Jacobson’s organ • Pit Vipers (heat) • Venom • neurotoxins • hemolytic enzymes

  25. Class: Squamata

  26. Class: Squamata

  27. Class: Squamata

  28. Class: Squamata

  29. Feeding Adaptations • Teeth curved and pointed inward • Hinged Quadrate bone • Bones of jaw are attached by muscles and ligaments • Moveable palate • Elastic skin • No sternum

  30. Class: Crocodilia • Largest living reptiles • Most closely related to dinosaurs • Complete secondary palate • Four chambered heart • Nest temperature

  31. Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs • Dinosaurs • Ornithischian • Saurischian (closely related to birds) • Pterosaurs • flying reptiles

  32. Class: Aves

  33. Class: Aves • Feathers • Hollow Bones • Wings • Endotherm • Organs reduced • Beak without teeth • No bladder

  34. Class: Aves • Wishbone – Called a Furcula made up of the fused clavicles.

  35. Class: Aves • Muscles – • Pectoralis muscle pulls wing down • Supracoracoideus raises wing

  36. The Origin of Birds • Feathers • Beak with teeth • Long Tail • Wing with claw

  37. The Origin of Birds • Sinoauropteryx - protofeathers? • Caudipteryx - true feathers

  38. Bird Classification • 8600 species of bird (28 orders) • 60% are passeriformes (perching birds) • Two major Types • Ratites • Ostriches, Emus • Carinates • Song birds

  39. Hair Endothermic Mammary glands Live birth (2 exceptions) Teeth differentiation Jaw modified to incorporate bones into inner ear Class: Mammalia

  40. The Evolution of the Mammal • Reptile’s lower jaw made up of several bones • Reptile’s middle ear made up of one bone • Mammal’s lower jaw made up of one bone • Mammal’s jaw joint has shifted • Mammal’s middle ear made up of three bones

  41. Mammal Classification • Monotremes • lay eggs • no nipples

  42. Monotreme

  43. Mammal Classification • Marsupials • born early • develops in pouch

  44. Marsupials

  45. Marsupials

  46. Mammal Classification • Placentals • Eutherian mammals • development in uterus joined by placenta

  47. Proboscidea

  48. Sirenia