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SBI4U - Biochemistry

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SBI4U - Biochemistry

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  1. SBI4U - Biochemistry Macromolecules Proteins & Nucleic Acids

  2. ProteinsImage from: http://www.beautifulactivenourished.com/nutrition/combining-food-for-optimum-digestion/ • proteins are largely responsible for structural and functional characteristics of living things

  3. Proteins • proteins are polypeptides (chains of amino acids) from 8 a.a. to 4000 a.a. in length • sequence and number of amino acids in a protein determines: • the type of protein • the final structure of the protein

  4. Amino AcidsImage from: http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/page/3 • there are 20 different amino acids • 8 are essential

  5. Amino AcidsImage from: http://ehab10f.blogspot.com/2010/11/amino-acid.html

  6. Amino AcidsImage from: http://academic.pgcc.edu/~ssinex/blt/proteins/proteins.htmSee Animation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-ctkPUUpUc&feature=channel

  7. Protein StructureImage from: http://www.umass.edu/molvis/workshop/prot1234.htm

  8. Structure of HemoglobinImage from: http://bioc208.blogspot.com/2009_11_01_archive.html

  9. Sickle-Cell AnemiaImage from: http://www.shuttervoice.com/15497/sickle-cell-anemia-awareness-campaign.html • a point mutation in DNA causes a change in 1 amino acid in one of the 4 polypeptide chains

  10. Protein Denaturation • exposure to heat, radiation, changes in pH can cause bonds between amino acids to be disrupted, causing shape of protein to change. • change in biological activities • sometimes change is irreversible (coagulation).

  11. Nucleic AcidsImage from: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/img/original/DNA5.jpg

  12. Nucleic Acids • Nucleic acids are not nutrients, but they are essential for all living things. • deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) • DNA and RNA are chains of nucleotides

  13. NucleotidesImage from: http://www.biopoliticaltimes.org/img/original/DNA5.jpg • basic structure of nucleotide: • sugar • phosphate group • nitrogenous base

  14. DNA & RNAImage from: http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Ribose_sugar.html and http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogenous_bases.jpg

  15. Nucleotide BondingImage from: http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/250/250SS10_7.html

  16. Structure of DNA and RNAImage from: http://drpeterjdadamo.com/wiki/wiki.pl?action=browse;oldid=DNA;id=Deoxyribonucleic_acid_(DNA)

  17. Protein Synthesis • The sequence of nucleotides in genes determines the sequence of amino acids in proteins. • transcription: DNA --> mRNA • translation: mRNA --> polypeptide

  18. Protein SynthesisImage from: http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/transcription/overview.html