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Fire Suppression Techniques IFSTA Chapter 14

Fire Suppression Techniques IFSTA Chapter 14

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Fire Suppression Techniques IFSTA Chapter 14

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  1. Fire Suppression TechniquesIFSTA Chapter 14

  2. Additional Reading Resources • IFSTA • Chapter 13 – Fire Streams • Chapter 2 – Fire Behaviour • Chapter 5 – Portable Fire Extinguishers • In the context of Fire Suppression Techniques

  3. Overview • Fire Control. • Roles & Coordination of Fire Crews. • Tactics. • Fire Attack Strategies. • Suppressing Class A Structural Fires. • Safety.

  4. Overview • Master Streams. • Review extinguishing agents. • Class B fire suppression. • Bulk transport vehicle / passenger vehicle fires. • Class C fire suppression. • Class D fire suppression.

  5. Fire Control • Fire control is the 2nd tactical priority. • Fire control involves activities required to confine the fire, stop its forward progress and bring it under control. • Benchmark – “Under control.” • Support activities that assist in fire control: Ventilation, forcible entry, provision of access, fire streams, etc.

  6. Fire Control - Offensive • an aggressive well placed interior attack with related support activities to quickly bring the fire under control.

  7. Fire Control - Defensive • an exterior attack directed to first reduce fire spread and protect exposures, then bring the fire under control.

  8. What factor should be considered when choosing an Offensive vs. Defensive Strategy?


  10. “MARGINAL” • An INITIAL attack strategy ONLY • Serious working fire • Limited opportunity for offensive attack • While offensive attack is in progress – hose lines are put in place to switch to a defensive attack • When would you use this strategy?

  11. Hose line selection Consider: Fire progress

  12. Hose line selection Consider: Fire load – potential

  13. Hose line selection Consider: Flow required

  14. Hose line selection Consider: Reach required

  15. Hose line selection Consider: Manpower available

  16. Hose line selection Consider: Water available

  17. Hose line selection Consider: • Fire progress • Fire load – potential • Flow required • Reach required • Manpower available • Water available

  18. Hose line selection • See chart page 536 table 14.1

  19. Remember Incident Management system at all time IMS is a fluid, dynamic system Assigned roles can change based on situation As a crew (pair) complete your assigned task and report when you are done No freelancing EVER! SAFETY! Fire Company Roles & Tactics

  20. First-in Pumper Assumes command Size up – tactical priorities Develops an attack plan (offensive/defensive/marginal strategy) Establishes a water supply Provides hose lines for fire control Fire Company Roles & Tactics

  21. First in hand lines Support rescue (before or after) Between the victims & the fire Protect escape routes (stairs!) Cut off fire (interior exposures) Control hallways & stairs Initiate extinguishment from unburned side – when? Fire Company Roles & Tactics

  22. Second Pumper Assist with water supply Crews back up initial lines Protects secondary means of egress Prevent fire extension Protects exposures Assists with extinguishments Aerial Assist with search & rescue Ventilation (PPV, vertical, etc.) Ladder building Provide elevated master streams (defensive) Salvage & overhaul Fire Company Roles & Tactics

  23. Rescue Forcible entry (specialized equip) Search & rescue Assist with fire attack when required Ventilation Salvage & overhaul Lighting R.I.T. teams District Chief Assumes command Coordinates all fire ground activities Assigns crews tasks Evaluates strategy (and tactics?) Manages resources Liaison with other agencies & media Fire Company Roles & Tactics

  24. Safety Precautions • Full PPE & SCBA, hose line, radio, forcible entry tool. • IMS – appropriate strategy, tactics and tasks. • Work in pairs or crews. • Entry control. • Back up crews and lines. • R.I.T. crews. • Structural conditions. • Fire conditions.(backdraft, flashover, location) • Building hazards (contents, electrical,construction)


  26. Fire Attack Methods Effective fire control is achieved by applying the right amount of water (or other medium), in the right form, in the right place.

  27. Fire Attack Methods • Prior to entering a structure, set the nozzle pattern, and bleed off air. • Wait at doorway for order to advance. • Stay to one side of any doors, nobody should block doorway, stay low. • Fire crew should be between the fire & the exit.

  28. Fire Attack Methods

  29. Fire Attack Methods • Direct Attack • Indirect Attack • Combination Attack • Not to be confused with an attack strategy (offensive/defensive/marginal)

  30. Fire Attack Methods - Direct • Narrow or straight stream applied directly to the seat of the burning materials. • Water is applied in short bursts. (5-10secs) • This will darken down the fire, and will not upset the thermal layering.

  31. Class A Structural FireDirect Attack • Solid / straight stream. • Short bursts at base of fire. • Close position.

  32. Fire Attack Methods - Indirect • Fire stream distributed throughout the heated upper portion of a room with a sweeping motion. • Used when crews are unable to enter the area due to intense fire conditions.(doorway or window)

  33. Fire Attack Methods - Indirect • Generates steam production, ventilate area and advance line to extinguish hot spots with direct attack. • DISTURBS THE THERMAL LAYERING • RISK OF BURNS TO FIREFIGHTING TEAMS

  34. Class A Structural FireIndirect Attack • Solid / straight / narrow fog pattern. • Stream directed at ceiling. • Sweeping motion.

  35. Fire Attack Methods - Combination • A narrow or straight fog pattern distributed throughout the fire area by a rapid clockwise rotating motion. • This method quickly controls the fire and reduces the chance of flashover. • Disrupts the thermal balance, limiting visibility.

  36. Class A Structural FireCombination Attack • Solid / straight / narrow fog. • Stream directed at ceiling, walls and burning materials in T, Z or O pattern.

  37. Improper Fog Nozzle Attack

  38. Proper Fog Nozzle Attack

  39. Basement Fires

  40. Highrise Fires

  41. Highrise Fires

  42. Trash / Dumpster Fires

  43. Master Streams Defensive operations: (large fire beyond the control of handlines, can be used in an area that is unsafe for personnel) • Direct fire attack • Exposure protection • Cooling for flammable gas/liquid storage tanks • Elevated master streams – advantage of extra reach!