quality evaluation and control 3202 n.
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  1. QUALITY EVALUATION AND CONTROL3202 Luke Howard Professor Food Science Department University of Arkansas

  2. INTRODUCTION • This module represents a brief overview of the course FDSC 4203; Quality Evaluation and Control taught by Dr Luke Howard at the University of Arkansas. • It is narrated by Dr Steve Seideman, Extension Food Processing Specialist of the Institute of Food Science & Engineering, University of Arkansas.

  3. INTRODUCTION • The module will cover quality assurance, plant sanitation, GMPs, cleaning and disinfection methods, quality factors and standards, flavor and color determination, food additives and HACCP

  4. Quality Assurancein the Food Industry (Portions of this section are from the book entitled “ Total Quality Assurance for the Food Industries” by Dr Wilbur Gould and Ronald Gould. CTI Publications,Inc)

  5. Quality Assurance • Modern term used for describing the control, evaluation and audit of a food processing system • It’s primary function is to provide confidence for management and the ultimate customer (consumer) • The customer establishes the level of quality the firm must manufacture

  6. Canning & Quality Assurance

  7. Quality Control • A large part of a QA program is built around quality control • Quality control means to regulate to some standard • It is an important tool for the production worker to help operate the line in conformance with the predetermined parameters for any given quality level

  8. Quality Evaluation • Is also part of a QA operation • It is used to describe or appraise the worth of a product • It generally involves taking a measurement of the product in a laboratory • It includes the evaluation of all incoming materials, products in process, and/or finished products

  9. Quality Audit or Verification • Goal is to audit or verify the products or processes over time • Used for firms having many plants • Part of the QA program to verify products in the warehouse, in distribution, and/or competitors products in the market place

  10. Quality • Makes a product what it is, varies among consumers • “Is the combination of attributes or characteristics of a product that have significance in determining the degree of acceptability of the product to a user” • Repeat sales are related to QA practices

  11. Standards for Quality • Legal standards • Company or voluntary label standards • Industry standards • Consumer or grade standards

  12. Subjective Methods for Determining Quality • Based on the opinion of the investigators • Usually involves sensory perception i.e. flavor, color, odor, touch, freedom from defects etc. • Requires training and experience

  13. Objective Methods for Determining Quality • Physical - size, texture, color, consistency, imperfections, headspace, drained weight, vacuum • Chemical - enzyme conc., moisture, fiber, pH, acidity • Microscopic - used for adulteration and contamination, and differentiation between cell types, tissue types and microorganisms

  14. QA Program Functions (1) • Raw materials specifications for QC • Improvement of product quality • Improvement of processing methods with resulting savings in cost of production and > profits

  15. QA Program Functions (2) • Standardization of the finished product according to label specifications • Increased order and better housekeeping of a sanitary plant • Greater consumer confidence (uniform high quality)

  16. Basic Fundamentals for a Successful QA Program • Organization of the QA department • The personnel • Sampling • Standards and specifications • Measurement A. laboratory C. procedures B. equipment D. reports • Interpretation (SQC and SPC)

  17. Examples of QE Functions (1) • Determination of % germination and purity of seed • Soil and tissue analysis • Collection and summarization of weather data for use in scheduling of raw products, packaging materials, or labor • Identification of crop diseases and insects

  18. Examples of QE Functions (2) • Determination of raw product quality and other in-coming raw materials • Evaluation and continuous monitoring of processing variables affecting quality • Determination of the efficiency of each processing operation as related to finished product quality

  19. Examples of QE Functions (3) • Periodic and continuous monitoring of water supply, equipment, plant sanitation, and the waste disposal system • Evaluation of the finished product quality and assurance of the storage life of the finished product • Development of new products and improvement of present processing, production and quality evaluation methods

  20. Basic Equipment for QE • Can opener • Vacuum gauge • Headspace gauge • Grading scale, screens and trays • Sizing gauges • Brine and syrup cylinders • Hydrometers and salometers • Thermometers

  21. Specialized Equipment for QE • Colorimeter • pH meter • Refractometer • Viscometer • Moisture analyzer • Microscope

  22. Factors Affecting Quality • Cultivar • Maturity • Cultural practices • Harvesting and handling • Processing • Shelf-life • Use

  23. Food Plant Sanitation

  24. Plant Sanitation Industries Responsibility • Moral and legal obligation to perform all operations in clean surroundings, and with due regard to the basic principles of sanitation • FDC Section 402a4 states that a food shall be deemed to be adulterated “if it has become contaminated with filth, or whereby it may have been rendered injurious to health” • Sanitation is every person’s job in the plant

  25. Reasons for Plant Sanitation • A better product, competition demands high, consistent quality • A more efficient operation, efficiency equates to planned sanitation • Greater employee productivity • Improved safety • Is a barometer of overall plant conditions

  26. Grounds maintained Storage for equipment. Exterior openings screened Free from insects, rodent proof No uncovered openings No chemical spills Remove broken containers from shipping, receiving No trash in parking lot Paved roads No litter or waste accumulation Roofs leak proof Plantkeeping - Exterior

  27. Floors water tight, smooth surfaced, and sloped 1/8” to 1/4” per foot to floor drains every 10’ apart Drains covered with grates Walls doors, partitions, pipes, ceilings kept cleaned and painted Proper ventilation to prevent condensation, mold growth, or deterioration of structures All windows, doors and openings should be screened Good lighting, ranges from 25 to 150 foot candles Plantkeeping - Building

  28. Constructed in regard to cleanability and protection from contamination Materials should be smooth, hard, non-porous, preferably stainless steel Pipe lines, fittings handling food should be sanitary Eliminate sharp corners Equipment should be directly accessible for cleaning (CIP) All open equipment should be covered Containers should be clean, and not used for other purposes (tight lids) Waste should be collected in proper containers (removed daily) Plantkeeping - Equipment

  29. Aisles should be kept clean and well marked Food materials, packaging should be protected from damage, rodents, insects, dirt, dust Stored products should be stored away from walls at proper storage temperatures Storage areas cleaned weekly Inventory and evaluation of warehouse products should be conducted frequently Storage temperature is critical for perishable ingredients/products Policy of FIFO should be strictly adhered to Plantkeeping - Storage

  30. Must wear caps, hair nets, hair restraints Pins, curlers, jewelry, fingernail polish should not be worn Pens, pencils, watches should not be worn above the waistline Protective clothing worn at all times Gum chewing and tobacco use restricted to confined areas Glass bottles not permitted in working areas Employees must report any skin breaks to supervisors Observe proper habits of cleanliness Plantkeeping - Employees

  31. Hands shall be washed and sanitized at the following times: A. When reporting to work B. After breaks C. After smoking or eating D. After picking up objects from the floor E. After blowing nose F. After coughing, sneezing and covering mouth with hand G. After using the toilet Signs should be posted throughout the facility as to smoking, eating and washing habits, and general sanitary requirements Plantkeeping - Employees

  32. Special storage areas should be provided for handling of clean uniforms, towels, toilet articles, soiled uniforms and linens, custodians supplies and equipment, pesticides, employees belongings, and garbage and wastes Restroom facilities should include liquid soap, drying towels Restrooms should not open to processing areas Toilet facilities should be scrupulously clean Lunchroom facilities should be provided and kept clean Plantkeeping - Special Areas

  33. Plantkeeping - Materials • In-coming materials should be carefully inspected and inventoried • Outgoing materials should be properly identified in terms of shipments and quality • Great losses occur in warehouses by improper housekeeping practices i.e. breakage, pilferage, looting etc.

  34. Plantkeeping - Sanitary Organization • The authority to uphold standards of sanitation is the responsibility of the plant sanitarian (in small plants might be the QA director or plant supervisor) • Sanitarian should be well trained in microbiology, chemistry, entomology, parasitology, and sanitary engineering • Sanitarian should be directly responsible to management

  35. Plantkeeping - Sanitary Organization Required tools for sanitarians • Ample supply of potable water • Different types of brushes • Detergents and knowledge of their use • Chlorination and chlorinating equipment • Steam and/or high pressure equipment fitted with proper nozzles

  36. Plantkeeping - Sanitary Organization • Flashlights for inspection of out of way places • Black light for detection of rodents • Camera • Attire consisting of white cap, clean white overalls, or white shirt and pants • Is responsible for training courses, workshops, seminars on sanitation and GMPs

  37. Plant Inspection • Plant inspection may be conducted by company personnel from either the home office, or the local plant, or by a third party • A written report should be made in all observed conditions listed as satisfactory, needs improvement or unsatisfactory • A manual should be written documenting minimum standards for each of the plant areas • Report should be acted on accordingly

  38. Sanitation Evaluation • Physical cleanliness - absence of visual product waste, foreign matter, slime etc. • Chemical cleanliness - freedom from undesirable chemicals i.e. cleaning compounds, germicides, pesticides, which might be present on the product or equipment • Microbiological cleanliness - controlled by the amount of microorganisms that may be present in the product, or on the equipment, building or people

  39. Suppliers • Chemical supplier can assist in plant audit for developing a sanitation program • Supplier can outline specific cleaning methods, products, and exact amounts, times and temp’s • Labor amounts to 90% of a cleaning program • Supplier can provide control and feeding equipment, engineering services, technical assistance, laboratory services, and sound planning for future needs

  40. Sanitation Program • Plant sanitation committee should meet monthly • Sanitation committee may consist of: plant manager, production supervisor, QA supervisor, food technologist, maintenance engineer, personnel supervisor and sanitarian • Training and retraining is critical • Break down each job into components to instruct, try to get people to think about what they are doing, stress important repetitive situations

  41. Cleaning and Disinfection Methods Portions of this section were taken from an article entitles : Sanitation; The Key to Food Safety and Public Health by James H. Giese. Food Technology. December 1991.

  42. Challenges for Food Sanitation • Increasing number of older consumers (immuno-compromised individuals) • New products and processes (eg’s MAP, sous vide, aseptically packaged foods high pressure, pulsed electric fields) • Sanitation programs are a prerequisite for HACCP programs

  43. Plant Design • Layout and functioning of the processing line should facilitate the flow of food material from one operation to the next with a minimum of delay • Walls, floors and ceilings should be made of impervious, easily cleaned, non-painted inert material • Positive air pressure should be maintained

  44. Plant Design • Raw materials should be isolated from processed food • Adequate hand-washing stations should be provided in food processing areas • Horizontal structures such as pipe hangers, beams, and duct work over exposed product areas should be eliminated

  45. Plant Design

  46. Plant Design

  47. Sanitation: A Four Step Process • A pre-rinse with high pressure water to remove gross soil • Physical removal of soil by detergents and mechanical aids • Another rinse to remove the detergent and loose soil • The application of sanitizers to prevent recontamination before processing

  48. Water Functions and Quality • Carrier for detergents and sanitizers • Carries soils or contaminants away from the surface that has been cleaned and sanitized • Water hardness is responsible for excessive soap and detergent consumption, mineral deposits, undesirable films, and precipitates

  49. Rinsing Step

  50. Efficacy of Detergents • Should wet and penetrate soil • Should emulsify fat • Should disperse and suspend soil • Should counteract water hardness • Should rinse well to prevent soil from redepositing on clean surfaces and be non-corrosive to equipment