Human A&P Unit 6: Axial Skeleton
80 bones that make up the cranium, facial bones, vertebral column, sacrum & thoracic cage I. Axial Skeleton - _______________________ _____________________________________ A. Bone Surfaces & Marking Terms specific to the axial skeleton: 1. ____________________- a tube- like channel within a bone Meatus Ex- hole for ear in the skull
Facet B. ___________________- smooth, flat, articular surface. Ex – where vertebrae contact each other in the spinal column
Skull Bones P.rotects II. Cranial Bones or the Cranium (____________) A. Functions of the Cranium: 1. __________________ the brain. 2. ________________ to the brain via the meninges (membrane covering the brain) 3. _______________ of the head via attachment surface for muscles. ACRONYM HELP: _________________ A.ttachment M.ovement P.A.M.
_____________ ____________- protects the frontal lobe of the brain. Frontal Bone (1 only) B. The 8 Cranial Bones & Their Functions:
_____________ ____________- protects the parietal lobe of the brain. Parietal Bone (2 bones)
_____________ ____________- protects the occipital lobe of the brain. Occipital Bone (1 bone)
_______________________- protects the temporal lobe of the brain. Temporal Bone (2 bones)
__________________________ - helps to hold other cranial bones together by creating the “floor” of the cranial cavity. Sphenoid bone (1 bone)
Ethmoid bone (1 bone) _______________________- also forms part of the cranial floor.
Frontal sinus __________ - space within frontal bone that gives resonance to voice. C. Parts of the Cranial bones and their functions:
_________________ - space in the sphenoid bone that drains into the nasal cavity. sphenoidal sinus
_______________- oval processes on the occipital bone that connect to the 1st cervical vertebrae Occipital condyles Foramen magnum ___________________- opening in the occipital bone that contains the medulla oblongota & connects to the spinal cord.
Zygomatic Arch ______________- process of the temporal bone that joins with zygomatic bone. ______________________-canal of the temporal bone to the middle ear. External auditory meatus ______________________-attachment site of temporal bone for ligaments & tongue and neck muscles. Styloid Process
______________________-opening of the sphenoid bone that allows the optic nerve to pass. Optic foramen
___________________-part of ethmoid bone that forms roof of the nasal cavity. Cribriform plate
__________________________- little openings of the ethmoid bone that allows fibers of the olfactory nerve (smell) to pass through here. Olfactory foramina
________________-of the ethmoid bone that helps to clean air and creates turbulence when inhaling via nose. (ethmoid also has _________ ________________ but it is too “high” up to see. Middle conchae superior middle conchae
Coronal D. Sutures of the cranium: sagittal lambdoid
E. Fontanels of Infants - _____________________ ________________________________________ membrane-filled space between cranial bones that allow the shape of skull to be altered during birth ___________________-soft spot on the top of the head that closes around 18-24 months via __________________ ossification. Anterior Fontanel intramembraneous
Posterior Fontanel ___________________-at the back of the head. Closes around 2 months after birth.
III. Facial Bones f the Skull A. 14 Facial Bones _________________________-forms the bridge of the nose. The rest is cartilage. Nasal bone (2 bones)
Zygomatic bone (2 bones) ____________________________-forms the cheek bones.
_________________________-articulates with every bone of the face except for the mandible. Maxilla bone (2 bones)
Mandible bone (1 bone) ____________________________-lower jawbone. It is the strongest, largest facial bone & the only movable skull bone.
____________________________-like the other conchae, it helps to filter & increase the turbulence of air. Inferior nasal conchae (2 bone)
____________________________-makes up part of the nasal septum. Vomer (1 bone)
____________________________-makes up part of the orbit. Lacrimal bone (2 bones)
____________________________-fuse together to form the posterior portion of the roof of the mouth, part of the nasal cavity & a small part of the orbits. Palatine bones (2 bones)
B. Parts of the Facial Bones & Their Features ____________________________-cavities in the maxilla that empty into the nasal cavity. Maxillary sinus
The __________ ____________ of the maxilla hold the ___________ (sockets for the teeth). These are also found on the ___________. Alveolar processes alveoli mandible
_____________________________- hole in the mandible used by dentists to inject anesthetic into the mental nerve. Mental Foramen
_____________________________- formed by the vomer, ethmoid bone and cartilage that divides the nasal cavity into left and right halves. Nasal Septum
Mandibular Fossa ___________________________- dip in the temporal bone where the lower jaw attaches. _____________________________- located on the mandible & articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone to form the __________________________ joint (TMJ). Mandibular condyle Temporomandibular
Cleft Palate C. Disorders & Ailments Relating to the Facial Bones: 1. _______________________- when the right and left maxillary bones and possibly even the right & left palatine bones do not fuse together before birth and a hole occurs in the roof of the mouth.
Swallowing & speech problems a. Problems this can lead to: i. _____________________________ b. Options for correcting: i. ___________________ around 12-18 months of age. surgery
Cleft lip 2. _________________- when the upper lip is split due to a severe cleft palate. a. problems this can lead to: i. _____________________________ b. options for correcting: i. surgery during the first _________ ____________ after birth. Severe eating problems and possibly even death Few weeks
Deviated Nasal Septum 3. _______________________- when the nasal septum bends sideways and may even block one nasal passage. a. problems this can lead to: i. ____________________________ ____________________________ b. options for correcting: i. ____________________________ Congestion, sinus infection, nosebleeds, headaches surgery
TMJ syndrome 4. _______________________- a pain & popping sound around the ear when opening or closing the mouth which can result in:______________________________ ______________________________________ headaches & abnormal wear of the teeth due to improper joint alignment
Hyoid Bone IV. Accessory Bones of the Axial Skeleton A. _____________________- suspended from the styloid process of the temporal bone and located in the neck between the mandible and the larynx. 1. Function: supports the _________ and provides an attachment point for muscles of the_____________ ____________________________. (It is commonly fractured during strangulation) tongue tongue, neck & pharynx
Auditory Ossicles B. __________________________ - 6 small bones (3 in each ear) of the inner ear that enable us to hear.
P. rotects V. The Vertebral Column: A. Functions of the vertebral column 1. _____________________ the spinal cord. 2. __________________ the skull. 3. ______________ attachment (ribs & pelvic girdle). 4. _________________ attachment (back & neck muscles) 5. ______________________ distribution Acronym help:______________________________ S. upports B. one M. uscle W. eight Please Santa….a BMW