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Human Body

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Human Body

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  1. Human Body SUMS 3

  2. Kit Objectives • Observe and investigate the human skeletal and muscle systems. • Become aware of the versatility of movement provided by an articulated skeleton. • Gain experience with the use of photographs, diagrams, and model bones to gather information. • Build mechanical models to demonstrate how muscles are responsible for human movement. • Compare the bones and muscles in their own bodies to photographs and models. • Investigate response time of hands and feet. • Develop an awareness of human bone and muscle structure and function and an appreciation for the versatility of the human body. • Acquire the vocabulary associated with the human skeletal and muscle systems. • Use scientific thinking processes to conduct investigations and build explanations: observing, communicating, comparing, and organizing.

  3. Science Inquiry Based Approach • Ask and answer questions. • Plan and conduct simple investigations. • Employ tools to gather data. • Use data to conduct reasonable explanations. • Communicate investigations and explanations. • Understand that scientists use different kinds of investigations and tools to develop explanations using evidence and knowledge.

  4. Vocabulary Joints Pelvis Triceps Skeleton Hinge Joint Extend Cartilage Ball-And-Socket Ligament Sternum Gliding Joint Cramp Femur Fixed Joints Muscle Tone Skull Fuse Strained Stirrup Suture Sprain Sutures Muscles Coordination Radius Contract Stimulus Ulna Biceps Response Humerous Tendons Scapulas Flex

  5. Investigation 1: Bones • Investigation 2: Joints • Investigation 3: Muscles • Investigation 4: Coordination Investigations

  6. Sunshine State Standards • SCF 1.2.1 – knows that the human body is made of systems with structures and functions that are related. • SCH 1.2.1 – knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provided information and clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments. • SCH 1.2.5 – knows that a model of something is different from the real thing, but can be used to learn something about real life.

  7. Kit Organization and Materials • All kits will now be stored and maintained at each school site. • Your school will have to cover the cost of replacing items in the kit not NEFEC. • Take inventory of all the items in the kit before using it. If something is missing check with the teacher who used the kit before you.

  8. Investigation 1: Part 1Bones Counting Bones Journal Questions: Do your bones move when you jump? Where are your bones? How can you tell where your bones are? What do you call the whole system of bones? How many bones do you think you have in your skeleton? • Observe your partner jumping rope • Record in your journal what observations you have.

  9. Investigation 1: Part 1Bones In your journal, write down how many bones you think are in your leg, arm, head, and torso. Journal Questions: • How do your bones feel? • If bones are hard, how does our body bend? Word Bank: bones, cartilage, joint, skeleton, skull, torso

  10. Investigation 1: Part 2Bones Mr. Bones Puzzle Put together the Mr. Bones puzzle without looking at anything to guide you. Compare your puzzle with another group’s puzzle. Complete Bones Response Sheet Read Science Story - ”The Broken Radius”

  11. Investigation 1: Part 3Bones Owl Pellets Read Science Story – “Barn Owl” Work In Pairs Owl Pellet Procedures: • Unwrap the foil and remove the pellet. • Observe the whole pellet. Notice the shape, color, and texture of the pellet. Write and draw your observations on your observation sheet. • Gently separate the pellet into pieces. • Remove the bones from the fur using toothpicks.

  12. Investigation 1: Part 1Bones Journal Questions: • How are these animal bones similar to human bones? • How are these animal bones different from human bones? Use the Rodent Identification Sheet to sort the collection of bones that you have. Tape your bones to the paper.

  13. Investigation 2: Part 1Joints Looking at Thumb Joints Journal Questions: • Each hand has 14 joints. Can you find them? • How is the thumb different from the other fingers? Tape your thumb securely to your index finger. Complete Thumb Joints sheet. Read Science Story - “Your Amazing Opposable Thumb”

  14. Investigation 2: Part 1Joints Journal Questions: • Which tasks were hard to do? • What made them hard? • How did you solve the problem? • How did you feel when you ran into a hard task? • What are the advantages of an opposable thumb? Word Bank: joint, articulated, opposable thumb, and immobilize

  15. Investigation 2: Part 2Joints Doing Joint Tasks Tape craft sticks to fingers (T.E. pg. 14). Complete task cards (Newspaper and Bracelet Tasks). Journal Question: • What physical features allow us to perform intricate everyday tasks? Read Science Story - “Bones on the Outside”

  16. Investigation 2: Part 3Joints Naming Joints Journal Questions: • Are all joints the same? • Do they all move the same way? Types of Joints Hinge Joint (hand) – gate hinge Ball-and-Socket Joint (shoulder/hips) – spoon and mallet Gliding Joints – (fingers)

  17. Investigation 2: Part 3Joints Label 3 types of joints on Mr. Bones using sticky notes. Word Bank: compensate, ball-and socket joint, hinge joint, gliding joint Journal Question: • Are all joints in the human skeleton the same?

  18. Investigation 2: Part 4Joints Comparing Bones Observe rodent and chicken bones. Complete the Bone Observation sheet.

  19. Investigation 3: Part 1Muscles Making a Leg Model Journal Questions: • We know bones don’t move by themselves, so how do you suppose bones move? • What do we have in our bodies that provided the power to move our bones? Journal Notes: • Feel the muscles in your body. Muscles are responsible for all movements of the body. • There are 605 skeletal muscles that play a part in moving the body.

  20. Investigation 3: Part 1Muscles Look at leg muscle transparency. Display leg and foot poster. Lay the muscle transparency over the bones to show how the tendons of the muscle attaches to the bones. Find Working Muscles • Flex the arm at the elbow. • Open and close the hand. • Work the jaw as if chewing. • Bring a knee up to the waist. Make leg models using dowel rods and rubber bands (T.E. pg.9).

  21. Investigation 3: Part 1Muscles Journal Questions: • What do muscles do when they work? • What happens when muscles contract? • How do muscles attach to bones? Word Bank: tissue, muscle, contract, and tendon

  22. Investigation 3: Part2Muscles Making a Thumb Model Make a thumb model using craft sticks and string (T.E. pg. 16) Read Science Story - “Space Race” Bring out the arm and hand poster. Place the arm muscle transparency over the poster to show how the muscle attaches to bones with tendons. Complete “Muscles Response Sheet” Word Bank: ligament

  23. Investigation 3: Part 3Muscles Making an Arm Model Using dowel rods, paper clips, and rubber bands construct a model of the arm (T.E. pg. 20). Read Science Story - “The Frozen Man” Complete Muscle Action Sheet

  24. Investigation 4: Part 1Coordination Stimulus/Response Assemble A Falling-Cup Device (T.E. pg. 9) • Snap a lid (with hole) on a cup (with hole). • Slide a long dowel (not the dowel with holes) through the holes in the cup. The cup should slide freely on the dowel. • Hold the dowel in a vertical position on a desk top with the cup bottom side up. d. Attach a binder clip to the dowel above the cup to limit how high the cup can be raised above the desktop. Attach a Vision Barrier • Cut standard sheets of paper in half. • Tape the paper to one side of the cup.

  25. Investigation 4: Part 1Coordination Journal Notes: • When all of these systems work together to provide movement, it is called coordination. • When sensory input triggers an action, that input is a stimulus. • Types of stimuli: • Hot and Cold • Pain • Touch • Light • Sound • Smell • Taste

  26. Investigation 4: Part 1Coordination Demonstrate the Falling Cup (T.E. pg. 11) Journal Questions: • Do you think he/she will be able to get her hand out of the way when she sees the cup start to fall? • What was the stimulus that started he/she moving their hand out of the way?

  27. Investigation 4: Part 1Coordination The action of moving the cup out of the way is a response. Adjust drop distance and practice with your partner. Try both right and left hands. Complete Stimulus Response Sheet Word Bank: coordination, stimulus, response, and response time

  28. Investigation 4: Part 2Coordination Journal Questions: • Did practice make a significant difference in response time? • If so, why do you think it did? • What factors besides practice might affect response time? Read Science Story - “Smart Training”

  29. Investigation 4: Part 3Coordination Attach Response Timer to a dowel rod. Match the starting position end of the strip wit the end of the dowel rod (T.E. pg. 21) To use the response timer, one person hold the timer (dowel) and another person gets ready to catch it. The number represents the 100ths of a second it took to respond. Let students practice with a partner and record their results on the Timing Responses sheet.

  30. Investigation 4: Part 3Coordination Journal Questions: • Which hand had a quicker response? • Can you explain why one hand would have a quicker response time? Read Science Story – “The Circulatory System”

  31. Investigation 4: Part 4Coordination Assessment Options • At this part in the investigation, students can complete a project and present it to the class. Refer to “Project Ideas”, “Project Proposal” and “Presentation Guidelines” Sheets • In the Teacher’s Guide there is an End-of-Module Assessment for the Human Body that students can take. It is 25 Questions. • There is also a Portfolio Assessment in the Teacher’s Guide.