Inspection firms training Fire Safety Assessment December 2018
Content of the module Introduction to LABS Standard Pre-Assessment Preparation General Assessment Methodology Fire Safety Assessment Risk classification and Reporting FFC Uploads Quality Control Measures Discussion
Understanding of LABS Initiative LABS Initiative – Life and Building Safety Initiative The core purpose of the LABS Initiative is to improve the life safety of workers in the international Ready-Made Garment (RMG) and Footwear sectors. 1 3 2 Structural Safety The three key elements of LABS Standards are: Electrical Safety Fire Safety and Evacuation
Understanding of LABS Initiative LABS Initiative – Life and Building Safety Initiative Key features of Safety Assessments Brands associated with LABS Initiative 01 Rapid assessment for allowing maximum coverage To be further elaborated 02 Information regarding supplier base and regions Non-destructive testing 03 Identify key structural, fire and electrical life safety issues To be further elaborated Experience in Vietnam 04 Time bound actions for risk mitigation To be further elaborated
General Assessment Methodology for LABS Assessment Return and Team Summary Review Pre-Assessment Preparation Close Out Meeting Factory Assessment Day General Assessment Methodology Testing Factory Management Introduction Building Assessment Factory Management Interview
Process of conducting LABS Assessment LABS Initiative – Preliminary Safety Inspection Flowchart Factory Factory Accord Assessment Firms QA/QC Firm Prioritisation of Factory List Initiate contact with Factory to introduce LABS Initiative Programme Assessment Documents Completed & Returned Scheduling of Safety Assessment & Issue of Pre Assessment documents Review of Factory Documentation Factory Management Intro & Interview Pre-Assessment Preparation & Review of Pre-Assessment Documents Initial Factory Overview Interior Interior Structure Exterior Complete Checklist Factory Assessment Factory Management Close Out Meeting QA/QC Visits Fire Interior Exterior Interior Electrical Testing Prepare Reports Structure, Fire, Electrical Assessment Day Complete Key issues to be Summarised for Reporting Report QA Check/Approve QA/QC Visits Publish Reports QA/QC Visits
Pre-Assessment Preparation • Pre-Assessment preparation includes following activities: • Planning the assessment • Consider national/regional holidays and industrial disputes (strikes / protest) before scheduling the assessment • Mention deadline for receiving the pre-assessment questionnaire – 2 days before the assessment date • Mention the management representatives (domain experts) required during assessment in the confirmation e-mail 1 5 Confirmation over phone - 2 days prior to assessment Scheduling the assessment date Text Calendar invite to internal team members Send the confirmation email and questionaire 2 4 Block the team members for assessment 3
Pre-Assessment Preparation Step 1: Factory Liaison and Scheduling of Assessments • Pre-Assessment preparation includes following activities: Step 2: Pre-Assessment Questionnaire Step 3: Planning the Assessment Step 1 • The assessment firms will follow up with factories for scheduling the assessment Step 2 • Share Pre-Assessment questionnaire, Documents checklist and Pictorial guide of activities – 2 weeks in advance • Provides basic information about the factory • Appendix A1 – Pre-Assessment Questionnaire
Pre-Assessment Preparation • Sample image of Pre-Assessment Questionnaire - Appendix A1
Pre-Assessment Preparation • Sample image of Pre-Assessment Questionnaire - Appendix A1
Pre-Assessment Preparation Step 3 – Planning the Assessment • Review the complete Pre-Assessment Questionnaire • If GPS coordinates available the site can be viewed via google Maps • If the Pre-Assessment Questionnaire indicates that the facility comprises a number of buildings, then consider the assessment days required (e.g. 2 days) • Confirm the number of assessment days during the initial meeting • Low rise and plant / equipment buildings may also be assessed by a cursory walk-through (if time allows) High Priority Areas Building accommodating large number of workers, reflecting the life-safety focus of the assessment programme.
General Assessment Methodology 1.1 Pre-Assessment Preparation • Assessment Team Personnel and Qualifications • Electrical Expert • Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering • Minimum 10 years of experience • Experience of at least three existing building assessments in the last two years • Structural Expert • Bachelor’s degree in Civil/ Structural Engineering • Minimum 10 years of experience (structural design or assessments) • Shall have minimum 2 years of structural design experience • Experience of at least three existing building assessments in the last two years • Fire Expert • Bachelor’s degree in Civil/ Arch/Industrial/ Mechanical/ Electrical Engineering • Minimum 10 years of experience • Shall hold certifications in Fire prevention and protection and fire safety design • Experience of at least three existing building assessments in the last two years
General Assessment Methodology 1.2 Equipment • Each team should have an assessment kit bag containing the following items: • iPad/ tablet • Digital camera • Schmidt hammer • Hilti PS250 Ferro scanner and screen • Thermal Camera (Fluke or equivalent) • Thermometer (to measure ambient temperature) • Geological hammer and/or chisel • 5m tape • Laser measure • Binoculars • Torch • First aid kit • PPE (gloves, goggles, mask) • Clipboard • Paint scraper • Callipers • Crack ruler • AAA batteries • Tyvek suit • To Do List for Teams • Make sure all equipment is fully charged the evening before assessment • Check laser measures, torches and other equipment • Ensure you charge overnight • Data capture from the assessment including • Photographs with tagged locations on drawings • Standardized observations and actions which are directly linked to the LABS FFC database • Make sure you have practiced with all the software before the assessment • In the event that the tablet does not work, the assessment should be recorded on paper, with photos to provide evidence.
General Assessment Methodology 2 Factory Assessment Day • Consideration should be given to local travel and traffic conditions to enable an early start • On the arrival at the factory take the opportunity to view the outside of the building and to gather some initial thoughts on the condition and arrangement of the building Closing meeting Factory management interview 3 Factory Management Introductions Formal introduction session Refer pre-assessment questionnaire and request all relevant requested documentations Remind factory management for pre requested assistance like provisions for plaster removal, ladder access, opening of electrical panels etc. Highlight to Factory Management that observations noted during the assessment will not normally be discussed unless there are particular serious safety concerns Agenda for Assessment Testing Site walk through (Exterior) • Site walk through (Interior)
General Assessment Methodology 3 Factory Management Introductions • Electrical Safety Assessment • Need for a competent person to open panels and removing flash guards / panel covers • Fire alarm and emergency lighting test (decide time considering minimum disruption) • Request maintenance records for transformers, switch gears, generators, fire detection, alarm, emergency lighting and fire hose pumps • Structural Safety Assessment • Concrete buildings – permission to carry out some tests on concrete column at the lowest floor level • Request for structural design reports, calculations, material test certificates, soil reports and other assessment reports • Fire Safety • Assessment • Fire alarm and emergency lighting test (decide time considering minimum disruption) • Request for Factory license, Fire License (NOC), Maintenance records and Records of fire safety drills
General Assessment Methodology 4 Factory Management Interview Capture the basic factory details like years of completion, names and function of each buildings, number of workers, shifts and operations etc. Review of documentations related to fire, electrical and structural safety. Under no circumstances during the Assessment, give the Factory Manager a sense or statement that the factory is “compliant” or similar. 1. Factory details 2. Review of documents Management Interview The conclusion of the Assessment will only be reached after the visit is complete and any follow up calculations or appraisals are undertaken. 4. General building assessment notes 3. Copies of documents and final points of review Complete introduction and management interviews within 1 hour time. • If access is not provided , we should note this in our report • Know the grid dimension of each building • Obtain GPS co-ordinates for factory location • Take photographs of business cards • Take photos of building drawings • Assessor must set up the app template to suit the number of floors, buildings etc.
Fire Safety Assessment Review of documentation Key observations • Factory license • Site plan of factory compound showing all buildings • Factory production layout drawings • Fire NOC (no Objection Certificate) • Emergency planning, safety drills and trainings records • Maintenance records for fire detection and alarm systems, emergency lightings, fire water pumps and hoses • Documentation related to building inspection by authorities Stated occupancy number in each area of building Determine presence, type and location of fire safety systems Collect information of all the high fire risk installations Check sources of water supply for firefighting equipment Location of water storage and pump rooms Any fire safety related observation in the regulatory inspection Develop a good appreciation of the spaces and interconnections between principal and auxiliary occupancies in the building. Documents to be reviewed during the management interview session.
Fire Safety Assessment Fire safety checklist Camera Laser meter and measuring tapes • The Assessor should make use of the safety checklist to ensure that all aspects have been recorded before moving on to another area or building. Maintenance and Housekeeping Means of Egress Assessment of Interiors • Number of occupants on each floor • Number and widths of exits from each floor • Type, size and condition of evacuation pathways leading to floor exits • Types, widths and conditions of doors on evacuation paths leading to floor exits • Distances to floor exits or distances between floor exits • Types, widths and conditions of floor exit doors • Types, widths and conditions of stairways • Types, widths and conditions of Final Exit doors • Signage for evacuation paths • Illuminated exit signs over floor exits Fire Safety Assessment Provisions for fire fighting Fire Safety Construction • Fire Safety Systems
Fire Safety Assessment Assessment of Interiors Assessment of Exterior • Illumination of evacuation paths from all areas to floor exits • Locations of high-risk areas • Fire rated partition elements • Type and coverage of detection system(s) • Type and coverage of alarm systems(s) • Type and coverage of emergency lighting system • Back-up power supplies for emergency systems • Are there any automatic extinguishing systems and if so, the areas they protect • Firefighting systems – factory fire hose systems • Hand-held extinguishers for first response firefighting • Signage for first aid firefighting equipment • Access into the interior of the building for fire fighters • Presence and accuracy of emergency evacuation maps on each floor • Condition of routes from Final Exit doors to a safe place • Muster areas to accommodate full factory population • Water supplies for firefighting systems, municipal and site storage • Pump systems for firefighting water • Firefighting systems – external hydrants • Access to the building for the fire fighting vehicles • Location of separate external buildings housing central machine rooms High Risk Areas in Garment Factory Storage area, Boilers, Generators, Transformers and Chemical Stores
Fire Safety Assessment Section 1: Means of Egress
1. Means of Egress • Key principles of escape from fire • Sufficient exit routes • Sufficient exits with adequate width • Limited distance to a place of relative safety Components of means of escape Horizontal escape from the occupied floor along an unprotected route to a storey exit (either a protected stairway or corridor), or directly to outside in the case of a single storey building. The protected stairway or corridor is referred to as a ‘place of relative safety’, and provides a route protected from the effects of fire and smoke all the way to the exit from the building. Vertical escape is related to protected stairs that lead occupants from upper floors to the discharge level, normally ground floor level. Exit to outside is escape from affected building to the ‘ultimate place of safety’, which is typically an agreed muster point outside the building.
1. Means of Egress 1.1 Floor Exits • Number of exits and locations depends upon number of occupants and travel distances. • Minimum numbers of exits – LABS Standards • 500 people or less - minimum of 2 exits • 501-1000 people - minimum of 3 exits • More than 1000 people - minimum of 4 exits Minimum width of any exit needs to be at least 800 mm. Exit width calculation : 5 mm width/ person • Take accurate measurement of exits if width is not sufficient • The maximum allowable travel distances to the nearest floor or building fire exit depends on the available routes to the exit • Escape from mezzanines should be given special attention Travel distance limit (alternate ways) Occupancy type: Industrial General - Non Sprinkler : 61 meter - Sprinklered: 76 meter
1. Means of Egress 1.2 Escape Path 1.3 Exit Signage • Important points to be noted: • All egress paths are to be unobstructed at all times • All aisles along the egress paths must be able to accommodate the flow of occupants using that aisle, and have a minimum width of 915 mm • Pathways must have slopes of less than 1 in 10 • Escape routes should not pass through places of special fire risk, adjacent spaces with high fire hazards • If the escape route leads people through an adjacent space, the inter-leading doors must not be lockable or sliding doors, and the path should not be obstructed • Important points to be noted: • The sign should contrast with the background and be clearly visible • Signs should be consistent throughout and ideally should be provided with symbols and not just text • Every escape route sign should, where necessary, incorporate, or be accompanied by a directional arrow. • If the escape route to the nearest exit is not obvious then it should be indicated by a sign(s) • Signs should not be obstructed by structure, fit-out items or other signs • Signage needs to be illuminated • Each exit door should have illuminated exit Signage can be illuminated by internal lighting from within the unit or by external illumination. The lighting to the signs needs to be fed from the mains but also have back-up power supply
1. Means of Egress 1.4 Exit Doors • No sliding or hanging door or lockable security gates can be used on an escape route • All doors along the emergency exit paths should be easily openable in the direction of travel • Swing doors capable of being opened from the inside, without the use of a key • When locked from the outside, the mechanism for opening the door from inside should override the lock Horizontal exit widths for doors are based on a flow rate 5.0 mm/person according to the LABS Standard (with a minimum width of 800mm required). 1.5 Exit Doors • Vertical escape to ground level from upper floors is normally via open or protected stairways • Width of stairways is based on flow rate of 7.6 mm/person • Final Exit may need to be protected, particularly if there are no alternative exits provided from the upper levels. • Exit stairs to be protected from the adjacent accommodation for the full length of the stairway • Handrails are needed for the emergency stairs
1. Means of Egress 1.6 Final Exits Final place of safety for occupants is outside the building • Escape to an adjacent building is allowed, if the building is: • Separate fire compartment • Of sufficient size to accommodate the occupants flowing in from the other building • Escape to adjacent building will always be available and building is under same ownership • The adjacent building has adequate escape stairs to allow for evacuation of the additional population to outside
Insights from pilot sessions • Emergency exit door with the locking mechanism. Emergency exit with the rolling shutter. • All doors in a means of egress shall be of the side-hinged swinging outward type. • Roll-down and sliding gates and shutters shall not be allowed on an exit route. • Doors shall not be locked in the direction of egress under any conditions. • Note the number and width of exit doors • Observe the swing of exit door • Check if there is any locking mechanism? Exit door has chain and lock system from outside.
Insights from pilot sessions • Note the occupancy load on each floor • Calculate distances to floor exits and distances between exits • Calculate exit doors and exit stairs capacity on each floor Total Door Capacity = Sum of door widths * 5 mm per person Total Stair Capacity = Sum of stairs widths * 7.6 mm per person Check if travel distance to nearest exit exceeds 61m (or 76m sprinklered) Escape from Mezzanine Consider total distance from mezzanine to floor exits All egress paths & stairs should be unobstructed at all times Each exit door should have an illuminated exit sign
Insights from pilot sessions Include brief description of occupancy type - General Industrial Occupancy (Production building) - Ordinary Hazard Storage (Warehouse) - Assembly (Canteen) - Residential (Dormitory) Include brief description on means of escape - At least two diagrams to describe means of escape - Final exits from building - External routes - Escape stairs and internal stairs
Insights from pilot sessions • Information to be captured along with the photographic evidences during the walkthrough Floor exits Capacity Exit Stair Capacity Observe if pathways are clearly indicated on floor and free from temporary/permanent obstacles Illuminated and consistent exit signs at all emergency exits Check if escape path and stairs have adequate width Observe if handrails are provided and risers are consistent and not too steep Observe if all stairways lead directly to outside at discharge level Note stairs discharging inside building and unprotected distance from final exit Note if there is excessive travel distance to the nearest exit
Fire Safety Assessment Section 2: Fire Safety Construction
2. Fire Safety Construction Observe all compartmentation and other fire separation issues The spread of fire within a building can be restricted by sub-dividing the entire volume into compartments separated from one another by walls and/or floors of fire-resisting construction. • Objective of fire safety construction: • To prevent rapid fire spread which could trap occupants of the building; and • To reduce the risk of fire becoming large • Compartmentation is required to separate different occupancies, basements, each floors • To provide fire resistance enclosures to areas in the building deemed as “places of relative safety" Sketch illustrating horizontal and vertical compartmentation.
2. Fire Safety Construction 2.1 Protection of Openings • Most common vertical openings between floors are openings for communicating stairs. • When a stairway communicates more than two floors then they need to be separated from the adjacent areas with fire rated construction. Stairs enclosures: 2 hours fire rated enclosures Doors openings leading to enclosures: 90 min fire rated doors • Important points to be noted: • An exit stairway shall not be built around a lift shaft unless the enclosure of the lift shaft is solid and made of a material with fire resistance rating • Check whether fire rated doors have been provided and whether they have self-closing devices Typical arrangement for stair protection for a building
2. Fire Safety Construction 2.1 Protection of Openings • External stairs need to be provided with a level of fire protection to prevent flames and smoke spreading via the façade of the building and affecting people escaping using the stairs. • Important points to be noted: • The fire resistance rating of the separation from the stairs is required to be minimum 1-hour fire rating where openings have not less than ¾ hour fire protection rating • Within 3.0m horizontally of the nonrated wall or unprotected opening • There should be no unprotected vertical paths between compartment floors • Any penetration through floor slabs and walls shall be adequately protected Protection of external escape stairs
2. Fire Safety Construction 2.2 Separation of Occupancies Occupancy Classification of the building • Important points to be noted: • According to the LABS Standards, building classified as General Industrial should be separated from other occupancy with fire rated separations. • Exception is incidental occupancy • Dining area (less than 50 people) • Childcare center: less than 4 people and max travel distance of 9m to a final exit • Office occupying up to a maximum of 10% of production floor area • Storage areas* up to a maximum 25% of the production floor area 01 02 General Industrial Occupancy Building 03 Assembly Occupancy: Dining Area 04 Business Occupancy: Office Storage Occupancy High risk area’ are always required to be enclosed with fire rated separation from the production areas
2. Fire Safety Construction 2.3 Storage Areas Areas of high fire load should be separated from adjacent areas with fire rated construction. • Important points to be noted: • Exemption for temporary storage without fire rated separations: • The storage does not exceed 23m² and does not exceed 2.45m (8ft) in height in any one area for an unsprinklered floor • The storage does not exceed 93m² and does not exceed 3.66m (12 ft.) in height in any one area on a sprinklered floor • Clear distances between ‘islands’ of at least 3m • Total area of temporary storage does not exceed 25% of the production area of the story 1 hour fire rated separations Temporary storage arrangements • Note the areas limits of the storage blocks • Note percentage of the total floor area is occupied by ‘blocks’ of in-process storage
2. Fire Safety Construction 2.4 Other High Risk Areas Chemicals Stores Compressors Generators Boilers Transformers • High risk classification • Quantity and type of combustible materials • Speed of fire propagation • Process leading to severe circumstances Protect and separate these spaces from the rest of the garment factory so that fire spread is limited or contained. The doors to these separated rooms will also need to be fire rated and if they open onto protected stairs or corridors, need to be separated by a vestibule at the entry points. 2.5 Structure and Finishes • Classification by type of fire: • Type 1: Highest degree of fire resistance • Type 2: Intermediate degree of fire resistance • Type 3: Lowest degree of fire resistance Make a note of structural material used.
Insights from pilot sessions Non fire rated compartment wall in the fabric storage area. Non-fire rated compartmentation at carton storage area and gap between the separation wall and ceiling. Non-fire rated separation between the fabric storage and the production area. 49m2 No fire rated separation between electrical room and the storage area. No fire rated separation between crèche, storage area, lift lobby and stairways.
Insights from pilot sessions Escape path The escape passage does not have fire rated protection. There is significant gap between the compartmentation wall and ceiling.
Insights from pilot sessions 49m2 The total area of storage without the fire rated separation and sprinklers system is 49m2. Temporary or in-process storage in non-sprinklered building shall not exceed 2.45 m in height and 23m2 in any one area. Sample image of vertical opening near stairways. Temporary or in-process storage in sprinklered building shall not exceed 3.66 m in height and 93m2 in any one area. The most common types of openings are the vertical openings between floors to accommodate stairs, lifts or service ducts. The area of temporary storage should not exceed 25% of the production area of the story
Insights from pilot sessions Information to be captured along with the photographic evidences during the walkthrough • Observe if stairs connecting more than 2 floors have fire rated construction • Observe if basements are separated from above ground floor with fire rated construction • Check if the doors installed to protect stairways are fire rated and have self-closing devices • Check if openings are sealed around services with adequate fire stopping products • Check if external exit stairs have any opening in the façade wall with 3m of the path • Check for fire rated separation of lifts shafts • Observe if any high risk area is located inside the building • Note the distance between production building and any high risk area located outside the production building High Risk Areas Fire rated separation is required if any high risk area is at less than 3m distance from any facade opening or escape path.
Fire Safety Assessment Section 3: Fire Safety System
3. Fire Safety System Fire detection and alarm system is crucial to ensuring the life safety of occupants, and minimizing the potential for undetected fire spread. Typical components of a fire detection and alarm system
3. Fire Safety System 3.1 Fire Detection • Conventional fire alarm system cannot distinguish between a real fire and various non-fire phenomena, neither indicate specific location • Analogue addressable fire alarm system are in constant two-way communicationwith the fire control panel. Analyse the signals then trigger fire alarm • Addressable fire alarm system • Identify the location of fire much easier • Information is constantly relayed back to the control panel incl. faults so maintenance is easier • Conventional fire alarm system • Each radial circuit will have a number of devices attached to it so the identifying the location of the fire is limited to that circuit • Important points to be noted: • Check if detectors are local battery operated or wired to a power source • Location of manual call points
3. Fire Safety System 3.2 Fire Alarm • Important points to be noted: • Fire alarm sound should be 5dBA above the background noise • At high noise area fire alarm should be augmented with visual strobes • Recommended at least 2 fire alarm sounders • At least one fire sounder in each fire compartment • Check if alarm is automatic or requires manual activation (Manual call points) 65 dB Fire alarm sound level Visual alarm – ambient noise level exceed 90 dB(A) 3.2 Emergency Lighting The purpose of illumination of an escape route is to ensure safe evacuation or exit of people from the area and to enable them to locate fire protection and suppression equipment.
3. Fire Safety System 3.2 Emergency Lighting • Important points to be noted: • Average illuminance level of the aisle should be at least 2.5 lux • All other escape route shall have illuminance level not less than 10 lux • Emergency light should be provided along the entire escape route • Emergency light should be provided at all the final exits Luminaire emergency escape lighting and illuminated escape sign Spotlight emergency light If first aid points or firefighting equipment and fire alarm call points are not situated on escape route or with in an open area, then illuminance level of at least 10lux is required