Warm-Up! • Get your ISN, turn to page 30. Today we are starting a new unit over ROCKS AND MINERALS! Create a tab for this unit and call it Rocks/Minerals • When finished wait for further directions.
Rocks and Minerals Circle Map Rocks and Minerals Brainstorm everything you know about rocks and minerals!
Open Your Book to Chapter 2! • Together we will read Sections 1 and 2, then you will finish sections 3 and 4 on your own. • As your reading, be aware of the yellow highlighted words in the text. These are new vocabulary words you will be responsible for knowing! • A vocabulary worksheet will be passed out for you to complete by the end of class. We will grade this together.
Minerals are NOT ROCKS!
What is a Mineral? Definition: A naturally occurring, inorganic solid, with a definite composition and a crystalline structure. Pyromorphite
What do all minerals have in common? All: • Are formed NATURALLY, not man made • Are NOT alive and NEVER were alive (inorganic) • Have a definite shape (no liquids or gases) • Are elements or compounds with a unique chemical makeup • Have a crystalline structure
Groups of Minerals • Minerals are grouped by the elements they are made of. Beryl (Emerald) Calcite Amethyst
Silver Copper Diamond Gold Iron Ruby
How do minerals form? • 1) Cooling of magma (hot, liquid rock and minerals inside the earth (from the mantle)) • Fast Cooling = No Crystals (mineraloids) • Medium Cooling = small crystals • Slow Cooling = large crystals
How do minerals form? • 2) Elements dissolved in liquids (usually water)- water evaporates and forms the crystal structure
Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Color • Can be misleading • Can vary with the type of impurities
Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Luster • How a mineral reflects light • metallic = shiny like metal • non-metallic = dull, non-shiny surface Pyrite has a metallic luster Calcite has a non-metallic luster
Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Streak • The color of the mineralspowder. • The color of the streak can be different than the mineral
Streak…can help identify quartz BUT... http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b3.html
Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Hardness • How easily a mineral scratchesmaterials • Mohs Hardness Scale • Scale from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest) • Test by seeing if the mineral can scratch different objects (like human fingernail, copper, penny, glass, steel file)
Find out more… • “Electronic” Hardness Test http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b2.html
Physical Properties of Minerals(can be used to identify the mineral) Other Properties • Specific gravity (*excellent clue to mineral’s identity) • Attraction to magnets • Bending of light • Reaction with hydrochloric acid • Smell & taste http://www.childrensmuseum.org/geomysteries/cube/b4.html