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018 Environmental Health

018 Environmental Health. Ua Mau ke Ea o ka 'Āina i ka Pono" The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness. Air Quality Water and Land Pollution Biological Hazards Toxic Chemicals. 24 smog-related deaths per day. air pollution killed 4,000. 1966 NY City. London 1952.

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018 Environmental Health

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  1. 018 Environmental Health Ua Mau ke Ea o ka 'Āina i ka Pono" The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness.

  2. Air Quality • Water and Land Pollution • Biological Hazards • Toxic Chemicals

  3. 24 smog-related deaths per day air pollution killed 4,000 1966 NY City London 1952 air pollution killed 50 (10% of pop) Beijing Olympics, 2008 1948 Donora, Pa (noon) Smog Deaths Led To Clean Air Laws

  4. The atmosphere’s four layers

  5. The EPA sets standards • States monitor air quality and develop, implement, and enforce regulations. • If a state’s plans are not adequate, the EPA can take over enforcement. 3 Criteria pollutants judged to pose great threats to human health NO2

  6. Air pollution has decreased since 1970

  7. Air pollution has decreased since 1970

  8. Reasons for the decline in U.S. pollution • Cleaner burning fuels • Scrubbers • Phase out lead gas

  9. How would you rate these products?

  10. Common Hazardous Waste Products • Bug spray • Floor care products • Furniture polish • Metal polish with solvent • Swimming pool acid • Glue (solvent based) • Paint, oil based • Paint, auto • Paint, model • Paint thinner • Fertilizer • Fungicide • Herbicide (weed killer) • Insecticide • Rat poison • Artists’ paints, mediums • Ammunition • Dry cleaning solvents • Lighter fluid • Mercury batteries • Moth-balls • Old fire alarms • Photographic chemicals (unmixed) • Antifreeze • Automatic transmission fluid • Battery acid (or batteries) • Brake fluid • Car wax with solvent • Diesel fuel • Gasoline • Kerosene • Motor oil

  11. Kapaa Quarry

  12. Recycling Center

  13. H-Power

  14. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Must supply 100% clean energy by 2045. Landfill gas (Kapaa) Waste to energy

  15. Solar farm created by Tesla and the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. Windfarms – Leeward and N. shore

  16. Harmful Natural Chemicals ciguatera HAB

  17. Harmful Natural Chemicals metals (Al, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Cd, HG, Pb) gases: H2O, H2S, HCl, HBr, SO4, NO2, CO2 VOG

  18. Cultural environmental hazards • Cultural (lifestyle) hazards: result from the place we live, our socioeconomic status, our occupation, our behavioral choices • Smoking, drug use, diet and nutrition, crime, mode of transportation

  19. Tobacco • There are over 4,000 chemicals found in tobacco smoke and over 400 toxins. • There are over 60 carcinogens proven to cause cancer in humans. • Causes 1 in 5 deaths in U.S. • Leading cause of cancer deaths

  20. Hawaii Stats • Smoking % of Adults who smoke by race/ethnicity 2017

  21. Hawaii Stats • Obesity (2017) • - 23.8% HI (2th lowest) • Diabetes • - 30.3 million U.S. (9.4%) • - 142,000 in HI (12%) 1 out of 8

  22. Infectious diseases kills millions • Infectious diseases kill 17 million people per year. • Half of all deaths in developing countries • Developed countries have better hygiene, access to medicine, and money. • Vector: an organism that transfers pathogens to a host

  23. Biological hazards • Result from ecological interactions • Viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens • Infectious (communicable, or transmissible) disease E. coli HIV TB Malaria

  24. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes Dengue fever 2015-2016 264 confirmed cases Leptospirosis 50-100 case/yr

  25. Environmental health hazards exist indoors Not a problem in Hawaii problem in Hawaii (<1978) Asbestos removal can also be dangerous • Radon: a highly toxic, colorless, undetectable radioactive gas • Builds up in basements • Can cause lung cancer • Lead poisoning: from lead pipes, paint • Damages organs, learning problems, behavior abnormalities, death • Asbestos: insulates against heat, cold, sounds, and fire • Asbestosis: scarred lungs don’t function • Also causes a type of lung cancer Renovation issues

  26. Endocrine DisruptorsLake Apopka alligators • In 1985, alligators had bizarre reproductive problems • Non-viable eggs, depressed or elevated hormone levels • The lake had high levels of agricultural chemicals and fertilizers that were disrupting the endocrine systems of alligators during development in the egg.

  27. Evidence for hormone disruption • Frogs also have gonadal abnormalities. • Male frogs exposed to very low levels of atrazine became feminized. • Levels were below EPA standards for human health. Tyrone Hayes U.C. Berkley

  28. Point and non-point source water pollution Turtle Bay 6/13/06 Alawai 48 million gallons raw sewage Maui Ala wai

  29. Pesticides, Herbicides & other organochlorines • PCBs • DDT Bioaccumulation biomagnification

  30. Common pesticides

  31. Toxicants can accumulate and biomagnify Biomagnification

  32. Toxic Metals Heavy metals resist biodegredation Natural occurrence- volcanoes • Mercury (Hg) • Copper (Cu) • Lead (Pb) • Cadmium (Cd)

  33. Heavy Metals • Minamata Disease (1953-1960)– Japan • Industrial pollution from plastic plant; dumped mercuric chloride into bay • Ingestion of Hg tainted shellfish  43 dead and 700 permanently disabled

  34. Toxic chemicals • Cu: • Tributyl tin (antifouling paint for boats) • Banned in U.S. 1980s • Acts as an immunosuppressor • Accumulations unusually high in small whales • May be associated with strandings

  35. Toxic chemicals • Pb: • Leaded gasoline invented 1920’s • Enters water from automobile exhaust, runoff and atmospheric fallout of industrial waste and landfills, mines, dumps • Leaded gas banned in US in 1980’s has reduced pollution in ocean Bioaccumulation  biomagnification

  36. Inquiry • What is an endocrine disruptor? • What effect does lead have on the body? • What is bioaccumulation and biomagnification? • What is an HAB and what is it caused by? • Distinguish between point source and nonpoint source pollution? • How is leptospirosis transmitted? • What heavy metal was involved with the Minamata disease?

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