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018 Environmental Health. Ua Mau ke Ea o ka 'Āina i ka Pono" The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness. Air Quality Water and Land Pollution Biological Hazards Toxic Chemicals. 24 smog-related deaths per day. air pollution killed 4,000. 1966 NY City. London 1952.
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018 Environmental Health Ua Mau ke Ea o ka 'Āina i ka Pono" The life of the land is perpetuated in righteousness.
Air Quality • Water and Land Pollution • Biological Hazards • Toxic Chemicals
24 smog-related deaths per day air pollution killed 4,000 1966 NY City London 1952 air pollution killed 50 (10% of pop) Beijing Olympics, 2008 1948 Donora, Pa (noon) Smog Deaths Led To Clean Air Laws
The EPA sets standards • States monitor air quality and develop, implement, and enforce regulations. • If a state’s plans are not adequate, the EPA can take over enforcement. 3 Criteria pollutants judged to pose great threats to human health NO2
Reasons for the decline in U.S. pollution • Cleaner burning fuels • Scrubbers • Phase out lead gas
Common Hazardous Waste Products • Bug spray • Floor care products • Furniture polish • Metal polish with solvent • Swimming pool acid • Glue (solvent based) • Paint, oil based • Paint, auto • Paint, model • Paint thinner • Fertilizer • Fungicide • Herbicide (weed killer) • Insecticide • Rat poison • Artists’ paints, mediums • Ammunition • Dry cleaning solvents • Lighter fluid • Mercury batteries • Moth-balls • Old fire alarms • Photographic chemicals (unmixed) • Antifreeze • Automatic transmission fluid • Battery acid (or batteries) • Brake fluid • Car wax with solvent • Diesel fuel • Gasoline • Kerosene • Motor oil
Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Must supply 100% clean energy by 2045. Landfill gas (Kapaa) Waste to energy
Solar farm created by Tesla and the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. Windfarms – Leeward and N. shore
Harmful Natural Chemicals ciguatera HAB
Harmful Natural Chemicals metals (Al, Mg, Na, K, Cu, Zn, Cd, HG, Pb) gases: H2O, H2S, HCl, HBr, SO4, NO2, CO2 VOG
Cultural environmental hazards • Cultural (lifestyle) hazards: result from the place we live, our socioeconomic status, our occupation, our behavioral choices • Smoking, drug use, diet and nutrition, crime, mode of transportation
Tobacco • There are over 4,000 chemicals found in tobacco smoke and over 400 toxins. • There are over 60 carcinogens proven to cause cancer in humans. • Causes 1 in 5 deaths in U.S. • Leading cause of cancer deaths
Hawaii Stats • Smoking % of Adults who smoke by race/ethnicity 2017
Hawaii Stats • Obesity (2017) • - 23.8% HI (2th lowest) • Diabetes • - 30.3 million U.S. (9.4%) • - 142,000 in HI (12%) 1 out of 8
Infectious diseases kills millions • Infectious diseases kill 17 million people per year. • Half of all deaths in developing countries • Developed countries have better hygiene, access to medicine, and money. • Vector: an organism that transfers pathogens to a host
Biological hazards • Result from ecological interactions • Viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens • Infectious (communicable, or transmissible) disease E. coli HIV TB Malaria
Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes Dengue fever 2015-2016 264 confirmed cases Leptospirosis 50-100 case/yr
Environmental health hazards exist indoors Not a problem in Hawaii problem in Hawaii (<1978) Asbestos removal can also be dangerous • Radon: a highly toxic, colorless, undetectable radioactive gas • Builds up in basements • Can cause lung cancer • Lead poisoning: from lead pipes, paint • Damages organs, learning problems, behavior abnormalities, death • Asbestos: insulates against heat, cold, sounds, and fire • Asbestosis: scarred lungs don’t function • Also causes a type of lung cancer Renovation issues
Endocrine DisruptorsLake Apopka alligators • In 1985, alligators had bizarre reproductive problems • Non-viable eggs, depressed or elevated hormone levels • The lake had high levels of agricultural chemicals and fertilizers that were disrupting the endocrine systems of alligators during development in the egg.
Evidence for hormone disruption • Frogs also have gonadal abnormalities. • Male frogs exposed to very low levels of atrazine became feminized. • Levels were below EPA standards for human health. Tyrone Hayes U.C. Berkley
Point and non-point source water pollution Turtle Bay 6/13/06 Alawai 48 million gallons raw sewage Maui Ala wai
Pesticides, Herbicides & other organochlorines • PCBs • DDT Bioaccumulation biomagnification
Toxicants can accumulate and biomagnify Biomagnification
Toxic Metals Heavy metals resist biodegredation Natural occurrence- volcanoes • Mercury (Hg) • Copper (Cu) • Lead (Pb) • Cadmium (Cd)
Heavy Metals • Minamata Disease (1953-1960)– Japan • Industrial pollution from plastic plant; dumped mercuric chloride into bay • Ingestion of Hg tainted shellfish 43 dead and 700 permanently disabled
Toxic chemicals • Cu: • Tributyl tin (antifouling paint for boats) • Banned in U.S. 1980s • Acts as an immunosuppressor • Accumulations unusually high in small whales • May be associated with strandings
Toxic chemicals • Pb: • Leaded gasoline invented 1920’s • Enters water from automobile exhaust, runoff and atmospheric fallout of industrial waste and landfills, mines, dumps • Leaded gas banned in US in 1980’s has reduced pollution in ocean Bioaccumulation biomagnification
Inquiry • What is an endocrine disruptor? • What effect does lead have on the body? • What is bioaccumulation and biomagnification? • What is an HAB and what is it caused by? • Distinguish between point source and nonpoint source pollution? • How is leptospirosis transmitted? • What heavy metal was involved with the Minamata disease?