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Adam Pawlak

Adam Pawlak

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Adam Pawlak

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  1. Engineering work in the information society Adam Pawlak

  2. Presentation Outline • Elements of the revolution based on information • The vision: • Information and communication - Information anytime , anywhere • Society - global village Enterprise - global workbench • Infrastructure for the information society • Internet, multimedia network, vs. interactive television • Convergence of technologies • Mobile and satellite communication • Working in the information society: • distributed work, teleworking • fast response to change, collaboration • abstract work, new on-line jobs • New engineering paradigms and tools based on Internet • Towards collaborative engineering

  3. Information society ... Which society...? • Information superhighways (USA) or global information infrastructure • (GII) - technology backbone for the IS. • Information society (European Commission) - • - informationsgesellschaft (Germany) • Global information society • A knowledge-based society

  4. The new industrial revolution • New information and communication technologies, as well as advances in microelectronics are responsible for the new industrial revolution that is based on information. • Information may be processed, stored, retrieved, and communicated in whatever form: oral, written or visual - unconstrained by time, distance, and volume. • 109-fold reduction in the cost and speed of storing and transmitting information. • This revolution adds new capacities to human intelligence and constitutes a resource which changes the way we work and live together. • The diffusion of these new technologies at all levels of economic and social life is thus gradually transforming our society into an information society.

  5. Revolutionary changes cont’d • New telematic infrastructures can handle the ever increasing • tide of multimedia (voice, data, image, text and video) traffic. • Telephone, telefax, television and computers - are to be used in • an integrated way. • New ideas, and inventions will spread out globally very rapidly. • The main competitive advantage will be the ability to learn • and respond faster than competition. • Increased competitiveness for enterprises and opening • of new perspectives in terms of both work organization and job creation. • Knowledge and ideas will drive economy. Tremendous quantity • of information will be available. Filtering will be a problem.

  6. Data, Information, and Knowledge • Unstructured data does not automatically mean information, nor can • all information be equated with knowledge. • Information is comparable to the raw materials processed by industry • to make useful products. • All information can be classified, analyzed and reflected upon and • otherwise processed to generate knowledge. • Codified vs. tacit knowledge • Information and communication technologies as such has no effect • on knowledge, still less on wisdom.

  7. The rough sea of on-line information • One of the main problems for the IS is available on-line: • misinformation, poor quality information, unreliable • information and commercial type information • Development of the skills and tacit knowledge to make effective use • of on-line vast resource is a must.

  8. Some technology predictions in the Past Thomas J. Watson (1943): The worldwide need for computing will be met by five computers. Popular Mechanics (1949): Computers will one day weight less than 1.5 tons. Prentice-Hall, Business Editor (1957): The data processing fad will not outlast the year. Ken Olson (1980): The personal computer business will fall flat on it’s face. No one will want a computer at home. Source: Bryan Preas, Xerox PARC

  9. New hybrid network architectures are emerging: • telephone calls to be made over cable television networks or the Internet, or • video to be carried over telephone wires. • Optical fibre will stay essential for transferring the large amounts • of multimedia data. • Digital compression techniques, more and more important. • Drastically reduced cost of information storage

  10. Drastically reduced cost of information storage Source: 1995 World Telecommunication Development Report

  11. Information & Telecommunication Market

  12. PCS = Personal Communication Services; MMDS = Multichannel Mulitpoint Distribution System GMPCS = Global Mobile Personal Communications Systems. . Source: 1995 World Telecommunication Development Report

  13. The vision Information anytime, and anywhere Applications, e.g.: air traffic control, road traffic management, health care, teleworking, distance learning,...

  14. Society - global village • Minimising of distance and remoteness among citizens • New opportunities to express cultural traditions and identities, • also for those standing on the geographical periphery

  15. Enterprise - global workbench • Globalization, and new markets - new ways in accessing customers • Novel information services and applications • Audio-visual markets • Ending monopoly for telecom operators • Means also fostering an entrepreneurial • mentality to enable the emergence of • new dynamic sectors of the economy

  16. The European Commission’s vision • The EC has been committed to IS vision since the beginning of the 80’s. • Information technologies - ESPRIT programme, launched in 1984. • RACE programme on advanced communications (1985). • First three programmes on telematic applications launched in 1986: • AIM (health care), DRIVE (road transport) and DELTA (distance learning). • All these programmes have been extended in the 4th RDT framework programme. • The policies implemented since 1987 in the fields of telecommunications and, • more recently, the audiovisual sector, are also involved in this dynamic • development. • The Commission issues White Paper (1993) on: Growth, competitiveness and • employment: the challenges and courses for entering into the XXIst century

  17. Growth, competitiveness and employment: the challenges and courses for entering into the XXIst century EC - White paper, 1993 • Emphasizes the significance of this evolution towards • the information society for the future of European society. • Stresses the importance and urgency of developing a Pan-European • information infrastructure to help revive European economic growth • and competitiveness and to create new markets and jobs. • European Council ordered in Dec. 1993 preparation of the report • on concrete measures for its implementation. • As a result, the Bangemann’s report was prepared (June 1994): • Europe and the global information society - • Recommendations to the European Council

  18. Europe and the global information society - Recommendations to the European Council - the Bangemann’s report • Emphasizes the urgency of a Community action and the need to speed up • the process of liberalization at the same time consolidating the universal service. • Specifies that financing information infrastructure is mainly the responsibility • of the private sector. • European Union and its Member States to create a coherent statutory • framework to avoid the circulation of information being impeded by different • national regulations. • The report also proposes a list of ten initiatives aimed at demonstrating the • feasibility and usefulness of new telematic applications.

  19. Ten initiatives of the Bangeman’s group Teleworking Distance learning Networks between universities and research centres Telematic services for SME's Road traffic management Air traffic control Health networks Electronic tendering Trans-European networks of government authorities Urban information superhighways

  20. Appl. 1: Teleworking - More jobs, new jobs, for a mobile society • Target: • 10 million teleworking jobs by the year 2000. Positive role of Teleworkis not only contributing to the economic competitiveness of European enterprises but also to the quality of life of its citizens, and its potential in creating work opportunities.

  21. Appl. 4: Telematic Services for SMEs - Relaunching a main engine for growth and employment in Europe • The widest possible use of telematic services (E-mail, file transfer, EDI, • video conferencing, distance learning, etc.) by European SMEs, with links • to public authorities, trade associations, customers and suppliers. • Raise the awareness of added value services, and communications in • general, among SMEs. • Increase access to trans-European data networks. • If the necessary ISDN networks are available at competitive rates, • the private sector will provide trans-European value-added services • tailored for SMEs. • Target:40% of SMEs (firms with more than 50 employees) • using telematic networks by 1996.

  22. The EC programmes related to the research and development for the information society ACTS: (Advanced Communications Technologies and Services) - the European Commission's major effort to support precompetitive RTD in the context of trials in the field of telecommunications during the period of the Fourth Framework Programme of scientific research and development (1994-1998). RACE: is a collaborative European research programme, running from June 1987 to December 1995 (including Phases I & II and extension). The overall objective is the introduction of Integrated Broadband Communication (IBC) taking into account the evolving ISDN and national introduction strategies, progressing towards Community-wide services by 1995. ESPRIT: an initiative of the European Commission DG III (Industry) is a major research programme in information technologies

  23. The EC programmes related to the research and development for the information society cont’d Telematics application programme: Research, technological development and demonstration projects for telematics applications and support actions in the following sectors of the programme: Administrations, Transport, Research, Education and Training, Urban and Rural Areas, Environment, Other Exploratory Actions, Language Engineering. IBC Lab:Demonstration and dissemination of the results of R&D efforts: RACE and ACTS. As the Programme RACE is coming to an end and ACTS is taking over, more advanced communication prototypes in various domains are becoming available which can be used by the Commission services to interact with the projects and field related actors in a more effective manner.

  24. The EC programmes related to the research and development for the information society cont’d The TeleServ projectis part of the European COPERNICUS Programme, which is set up to manage technology projects in Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. TeleServ's strategic goal is to connect 2000 technologists in the CEE region, to networks and services used by their peers in the West. The intention is to provide technology transfers and employment opportunities in both directions for the region. I'M Europe - an initiative of Directorate-General XIII of the EC to provide the World Wide Web with information about Europe and the European electronic information market.

  25. ACTS: (Advanced Communications Technologies and Services) • The development of advanced communication systems and services will • contribute to the emergence of an information society in Europe. • RTD aimed at bringing together telecommunications, television and media • is essential for the development of trans-European networks and services. • These activities are therefore crucial not only for all economic activities but • also for social cohesion and cultural development. • Compared with the third framework programme, greater emphasis will be • placed on the application of technologies. Topics to be focussed on:

  26. ACTS: in IV Framework Programme cont’d Topics to be focused on: · Interactive digital multimedia services - systems and services combining sound, images and digital data; · Photonic technologies - fully optical networks by the year 2000; · High-speed networking - services such as videophones, teleworking and social care, thanks to efficient integrated networks; · Mobility and personal communications networks - offer the public a new generation of flexible and reliable cordless transmission systems; · Intelligence in networks and service engineering - intelligent communication systems and enable users themselves to determine the type of services offered; · Quality, security and safety of communication services and systems - ensure the reliability and security of information transmitted (electronic signatures).

  27. ESPRIT • ESPRIT: an initiative of the European Commission DG III (Industry). • The technological areas to be supported are: • Software Technologies (ST) • Technologies for Components and Subsystems (TCS) • Multimedia Systems (MS) • Long Term Research (LTR) • Focused Cluster: Open Microprocessor Systems Initiative (OMI) • Focused Cluster: High Performance Computing and Networking (HPCN) • Focused Cluster: Technologies for Business Process (TBP) • Focused Cluster: Integration in Manufacturing (IIM)

  28. Towards FP5 objectives CEC Draft 1999- 2002 Fifth Framework Programme Thematic Programmes Information Society Technologies 3.925 BECU Living World & Ecosystem 3.925 BECU Competitive & Sustainable Growth 3.925 BECU Horizontal Programmes International Cooperation 491 MECU Innovation & SMEs 350 MECU Human Potential 1.402 BECU Total: 16.3 Billion ECU (incl. Euratom) Source: Marc GOFFART European Commission

  29. New ways of working IS for the citizen Building blocks Multimedia content and tools Visionary Research Source: Marc GOFFART European Commission

  30. Presentation Outline • Elements of the revolution based on information • The vision: • Information and communication - Information anytime , anywhere • Society - global village Enterprise - global workbench • Infrastructure for the information society • Internet, multimedia network, vs. interactive television • Convergence of technologies • Mobile and satellite communication • Working in the information society: • distributed work, teleworking • fast response to change, collaboration • abstract work, new on-line jobs • New engineering paradigms and tools based on Internet • Towards collaborative engineering

  31. Moore’s law The power of microprocessors has been regularly doubling about every 18 months for the past 25 years. The trend continues.

  32. Metcalfe’s law The value of a computer network grows as the square of the number of connected elements. The trend is to connect all computers to a single network.

  33. US Vice-President Al Gore on GII March 21, 1994. A planetary information network that transmits messages and images with the speed of light from the largest city to the smallest village on every continent. ... This GII will circle the globe with information superhighways on which all people can travel ... These highways --or, more accurately, networks of distributed intelligence -- will allow us to share information, to connect, and to communicate as a global community.

  34. Bangemann Report to the European Council, Europe and the global information society, Brussels, May 1994. Throughout the world, information and communications technologies are generating a new industrial revolution already as significant and far-reaching as those of the past. It is a revolution based on information. ... Information has a multiplier effect that will energize every economic sector. With market-driven tariffs, there will be a vast array of novel information services and applications. ... Since information activities are borderless in an open market environment, the information society has an essentially global dimension".

  35. Building Japan's information infrastructure, Izumi Aizi Nihon Keizai Shimbun, April 16, 1993 The cost of information today consists not so much of the creation of contents, which should be the real value, but of the storage and efficient delivery of information, that is in essence the cost of paper, printing, transport, warehousing, and other physical distribution means, plus the cost of the personnel needed to run these "extra" services. ... Realising an autonomous distributed networked society, which is the real essence of the Internet, will be the most critical issue for the success of the information and communication revolution of the coming century or millennium."

  36. Global information infrastructure (GII) • Several competing visions: • a high performance computer network which will facilitate high-speed • data access and retrieval - computer industry perspective; • a multimedia network, the primary use of which will be conveying • video in conjunction with data, image, text and voice - • the telecommunications industry perspective; • a medium for interactive television, in which the intelligent television • set rather than the home computer or the video telephone becomes • the main communication channel - the entertainment industry perspective. Which vision will materialise as GII ?

  37. The Internet as a high performance computer network ? • GIIcan be seen as a high performance computer network • which will facilitate high-speed data access and retrieval. • The Internet is seen as the precursor for a GII. • Should be extended from the academic and research communities • to a broader commercial marketplace. • Must preserve openness and innovation that have been a critical part • of the Internet's success. • Could form the basis for a new model of network development. • The Internet suffers from: potential misuse, security problems • and lack of structure. It is also a narrow band rather than a broadband • or high capacity network. • The Internet may, therefore, be more useful as a test bed for network • evolution rather than being the network itself.

  38. GII as a multimedia network ? • Alternatively the GII could be envisaged as a multimedia network, • for conveying video, with data, image, text and voice. • According to this vision, many of the potential applications will • encompass the entertainment, education and health care sectors • as well as the business market. • This vision by providing access to schools, universities, hospitals • and public libraries predominates among politicians.

  39. Interactive television as a foundation for GII ? • The intelligent television set becomes the main communication channel with: • multiple new television channels, • video-on-demand, • home shopping and other services. • Good for video games as well as for multinational videoconferences. • Entertainment would be the key service, but education and business • services will profit as well.

  40. A report of the Japanese Ministry of Posts and Telecoms (MPT) said that terrestrial digital TV broadcasting should start in the Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya regions by the end of 2003 instead of 2000. The delay is linked to the multi-billion Ecu investment required to switch to digital broadcasting, which acts as a deterrent for industry. The MPT recently unveiled a stimulus package aimed to help broadcasters to switch to digital TV. The report said it expects analogue broadcasting in Japan to end in 2010.

  41. Information industry convergence - single network of networks can, theoretically, accommodate each of these different visions.

  42. Towards the information infrastructure for the IS • Seamless interconnection of networks: • - fixed, mobile, and satellite • Interoperability of services and applications • Integrated Services Digital Network - ISDN: a first step • - use of telephone lines for transfer of data (even moving images) • - e.g. PC to PC communication, low cost transmission of documents • - teleworking using ISDN services can be attractive to a wide range • of bussinesses. Ideal for distance learning. • Broadband networks: the path to multimedia • - Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology should be • the backbone of the information society. • - cable (optical fibre), and satellite networks - data compression, • and advanced DSP transmission techniques.

  43. Optical fibres - voice channel equivalents Source: 1995 World Telecommunication Development Report

  44. Optical fibres - used vs. unused capacity Source: 1995 World Telecommunication Development Report

  45. INTERNET • Radically decentralised systems, no one controls it! • Internet is, in a certain sense, is a set of protocols. Anyone who follows • those protocols can play any of a number of roles in the syste: service provider, • service user, network provider, and so on. • Services required by the IS are supported by INTERNET • - built-in control mechanisms (TCP/IP protocol) is its strength • - can comprise even 600 - 1000 millions of networks; required are • new routers and intelligent software • - Serious security problems

  46. Netscape founder Marc Andreesen has described the Internet as: • "... a platform for entrepreneurial activities - a free market • economy in its truest sense. Its a level playing field where • people can do anything they wanted to".

  47. Despite this astonishing rate of growth, the Internet still only constitutes a small slice of the information industry pie. THE Internet and the ITU Dr Pekka Tarjanne Source: ITU World Telecommunication Indicators Database.

  48. European high performance Internet DANTE, FINE, RIPE, TEN-34 and TERENA Rapid follow-on of the TEN-34 Project to 155 and 622 Mbps

  49. Internet2 US Internet2 project • Commodity Internet • Internet2 plans to operate at 2.4 Gbs/sec • 600 Mbit/s - is fast enough to transmit a 30-volume encyclopaedia • in less than one second. • Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP), will enable users to reserve a • required internet bandwidth. • Selectable quality of service (QoS): transmission speed, bounded delay • and delay variance, throughput, and schedule • Today is used the Internet Protocol (IP) version 4. • I2 will deploy IP version 6 (IPv6). • All implementations must be backward compatible with IPv4.