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Serial Communication Interface

Serial Communication Interface

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Serial Communication Interface

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  1. Serial Communication Interface Abel Valdes Tsun-Yen Wu Faisal Tanvir

  2. Presentation Outline • Types of data transmission: • Parallel Communication • Serial Communication • Applications • Serial Communication Transition Formats • HC11 SCI Registers • Wakeup, Send Break • Examples

  3. Data Transmission • Importance • Most electronic devices must communicate with other devices to either control them or send data to them • Standardization • The two communicating devices must “speak the same language” • Key Features • Compatibility • Data Integrity • Speed Abel Valdes

  4. Parallel Communication Receiver 1st word 2nd word Transmitter • Simultaneous 8-bit transmission • Bits must stay synchronized • Restricted distance to avoid synchronization problems • Theoretically faster (limited by skew) • Hardware easier to implement Abel Valdes

  5. Serial Communication Receiver 1st word 2nd word Transmitter • Transfers one bit at a time • Requires only one data line • Slow compared to parallel transmission • Less expensive Abel Valdes

  6. Serial vs. Parallel • Serial communication requires less transfer lines • Clock differences between channels • No crosstalk between transmission lines Abel Valdes

  7. Applications ATA interface for storage devises (IDE), cable lengths of up to 18” 133 Mbits/sec with 16 bit lines. Serial ATA 1.5Gbits/sec FireWire 8000 Mbits/sec USB 480 Mbits/sec Abel Valdes

  8. Synchronization • Asynchronous • Transmission can occur at any time • Receiver is always listening • No idle characters • Data words not locked into system timing • Requires start and stop bits • Synchronous • Data rates determined by clock rates • Continuous transmission to maintain clock synchronization. • Faster Abel Valdes

  9. Start and Stop Bits • Start bit • First bit to be transmitted for each word of data • A transition from idle state to the opposite state, last one bit time • Stop bit • Last bit(s) indicates the end of a word • Value of idle state 0110 0001 = 6116 Abel Valdes

  10. Parity Bit • Used to check that all of the set bits were received • Odd parity: bit is set to 1 or 0 to make the sum of all bits odd. • Even parity: makes the sum of all bits even. • Not implemented in HC11 Transmitted Sum = 4 Start 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 Parity Stop Received Sum = 3 Start 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 Parity Stop Parity bit sent (1) = Parity of signal received (0) Abel Valdes

  11. Transfer Rates • Baud Rate: number of individual states that are transmitted per second. 8 bits of information Start bit + Stop bit_______________ 10 bit word Abel Valdes

  12. Transmission Rates Example • Example: • Consider baud rate: 4800 baud • 12 bits/word = 1 start bit + 8 data bits + 1 parity bit + 2 stop bits • Bit time = 1/(baud rate) = 1/4800baud = 0.208ms/bit • Word time = (12 bits)*(bit time) = 2.5ms • Word rate = 1/(word time) = 400 words/s • Bit rate = (word rate)*(8 data bits) = 3200 bits/s

  13. Signal Standard • Serial devices convert TTL/CMOS-level signals to higher voltage bipolar signals state 1: -3V to -25V state 0: 3V to 25V Abel Valdes

  14. Asynchronous Serial Transmission One Data Packet • Four parts per packet Parity Bit Data Bit 1 Data Bit 3 Data Bit 6 HIGH Stop Bit LOW Data Bit 0 Data Bit 2 Start Bit Data Bit 4 Data Bit 5 Data Bit 7

  15. Start bit—Ideal Case (0) sampling clock (RT clock) : 16 times the baud-rate frequency(1) idle-line time(2) logic-zero sample is preceded by three logic-one samples : start-bit qualifiers(3) start-verification samples(4) data samples Tsun-Yen Wu

  16. Noise (i) Noise Data receiving aborted!!! Tsun-Yen Wu

  17. Noise (ii) Tsun-Yen Wu

  18. HC11 SCI Registers • 5 Main Registers: • BAUD: Sets bit rate for SCI • SCCR1: Sets control bits for the 9-bit character format and the receiver wake up feature • SCCR2: Main control register • SCSR: Status Register • SCDR: Main Data Register Tsun-Yen Wu

  19. Address: $102B Bit 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Bit 0 0 0 Read: 0 SCP1 SCP0 SCR2 SCR1 SCR0 TCLR RCKB Write: Reset: 0 0 0 0 0 U U U U = Unaffected HC11 SCI Registers BAUD Register • Used to set bit rate of SCI system • TCLR: Clear baud rate timing chain bit • SCP1: SCP0 – Baud rate pre-scale select bits • RCKB: SCI baud rate clock test bit • SCR2: SCR0 – SCI baud rate select bits Tsun-Yen Wu

  20. BAUD Register Tsun-Yen Wu

  21. BAUD Register Tsun-Yen Wu

  22. HC11 SCI Registers SCCR1 Register • Contains control bits related to the 9-bit data character format and receiver wake up feature • R8: Receive data bit 8 • T8: Transmit data bit 8 • M: SCI character length bit • WAKE: Wakeup method select bit • Bits 0, 1, 2 & 5: Not used (always 0) Tsun-Yen Wu

  23. HC11 SCI Registers SCCR2 Register • Main control register for SCI sub-system • TIE: Transmit interrupt enable bit • TCIE: Transmit complete interrupt enable bit • RIE: Receive interrupt enable bit • ILIE: Idle-line interrupt enable bit • TE: Transmit enable bit • RE: Receive enable bit • RWU: Receiver wakeup bit • SBK: Send break bit Tsun-Yen Wu

  24. HC11 SCI Registers SCSR Register • SCI status register • TDRE: Transmit data register empty bit • TC: Transmit complete bit • RDRF: Receive data register full bit • IDLE: Idle-line detect bit • OR: Overrun error bit • NF: Noise flag • FE: Framing Error bit • Bit 0: is not used (always 0) Tsun-Yen Wu

  25. HC11 SCI Registers SCDR Register • SCI data register • Two separate registers • When SCDR is read, the read-only RDR is accessed • When SCDR is written, the write-only TDR is accessed • R7 - R0: Read bits • T7 - T0: Write bits Tsun-Yen Wu

  26. Wake Up • M68HC11 supports a receiver wake up function, which is intended for systems having more than one receiver • The transmitting device directs messages to an individual receiver or group of receivers by passing addressing information in the initial byte • Receivers not addressed activate the receiver wakeup function -This makes these receivers dormant for the remainder of the unwanted message • Software in the receiver evaluates if the data is intended to a receiver. Faisal Tanvir

  27. Wake Up Cont. • Two methods of Wakeup • Idle Line: wake up as soon as RxD line becomes idle. All devices are awake (RWU=0) until they realize that the message is not intended for RWU=1. Then wake up when a idle line of 10 RxD is detected. Note: 1 bit time between idle and message and no space in message. • Address-Mark: the most significant bit use to indicate if is data(0) or address(1) all dormant receivers wake up if one is detected. Check if message is for them. Note: no idle between messages and space in message ok. Faisal Tanvir

  28. Send Breaks • Break characters are character length periods when the TxD line goes to 0. • Either 10 or 11 0’s. • As long as the SBK bit is set, break characters will be sent. • Character length is influenced by the M bit in the SCCR1 • M = 0 – All characters are 10 bit times long • M = 1 – all characters are 11 bit times long • Break characters have no start and stop bits Faisal Tanvir

  29. SCI Transmitting and Receiving with the HC11 Faisal Tanvir

  30. Transmitting and Receiving with HC11 • Receiver uses pin 0 of port D – When SCI receiver is enabled DDRD0 is set to zero to disable output buffer. • Transmitter uses pin 1 of port D – When SCI transmitter is enabled DDRD1 is set to one to disable input buffer. • The original state of DDRD is restored once transmitting/receiving has ended. Faisal Tanvir

  31. Transmitter Block Diagram Faisal Tanvir

  32. Transmitting Steps 1. Set Baud rate to equal receiver 2. Set TE (SCCR2) high to enable 3. Set Wake Up mode (SCCR1) 4. TE sends idle character to wake receiver 5. Receiver determines if message is intended for it 6. Load character into SCI Data Register (SCDR) 7. Character placed in shift register and shifted out 8. When TDRE (SCSR) sets back to 1, load another character (both polling and interrupts can be used). 9. Transmission complete (TC in SCSR) 10. Idle line rests at logic 1, RWU goes to 0 Faisal Tanvir

  33. Receiver Block Diagram Faisal Tanvir

  34. Receiving Steps 1. Set Baud rate in Baud register ($102B) 2. Set bit 4 in SCCR1 ($102C) to select 8 or 9 bit characters; set bit 3 to select wake up mode 3. Set bit 2 in SCCR2 ($102D) to enable receiver; set bit 4 to enable interrupt on idle; set bit 5 to enable interrupt when character received or overrun occurs. 4. Read status of receive from SCSR ($102E) Bit 5 will be set when data is received; framing error sets bit 1; noise sets bit 2; overrun sets bit 3; idle sets bit 4 5. Read data received from SCDR ($102F) 6. If 9 bit data format is used, the ninth bit of data will be located in bit 7 of SCCR1 ($102C) Faisal Tanvir

  35. Examples of SCI Transmit - Configuration • Let’s say we want to transmit hex number 2C at a Baud rate of 1200 • First set up variables and set Baud rate MAIN EQU $1040 SCCR2 EQU $102D BAUD EQU $102B SCSR EQU $102E SCDR EQU $102D Assemble code starting here Address of SCI control register 2 Address of Baud rate control register Address of SCI status register Address of SCI data register Faisal Tanvir

  36. Examples of SCI Transmit ORG MAIN LDAA #$33 STAA BAUD LDAA #$08 STAA SCCR2 LDAA #$2C STAA SCDR CHECK LDAA SCSR ANDA #$C0 CMPA #$C0 BNE CHECK SWI This sets bits like in last slide Write to the Baud register Set the Transmit Enable bit high Write to SCCR2 Put you data to transmit here Store it in the SCI data register Load the status register to Acc A Check to see if Transmit Complete flag is set If it is not, loop and keep checking If it is, we’re done Faisal Tanvir

  37. Examples of SCI Receive- Configuration • Once again, Baud rate of 1200 • Set up things in a similar way: MAIN EQU $1041 SCCR2 EQU $102D BAUD EQU $102B SCSR EQU $102E SCDR EQU $102F STORE EQU $1040 Assemble code starting here Address of SCI control register 2 Address of Baud rate control register Address of SCI status register Address of SCI data register Address of place to store incoming data Faisal Tanvir

  38. Examples of SCI Receive ORG MAIN LDAA #$33 STAA BAUD LDAA #$04 STAA SCCR2 CHECK LDAA SCSR ANDA #$20 CMPA #$20 BNE CHECK LDAA SCDR STAA STORE SWI This sets bits like in previous slide Write to the Baud register Set the Receive Enable bit high Write to SCCR2 Load the status register into Acc A Check to see if RDRF flag is set (Receive Data Register Full) If not, keep checking until it is When data has been received, store it Faisal Tanvir

  39. References • General Information • http://www.ee.nmt.edu/~rison/ee308_spr99/lectures.html • http://www.ece.northwestern.edu/local-apps/matlabhelp/techdoc/matlab_external/ch_seri8.html • RS-232 Standard • http://www.camiresearch.com/Data_Com_Basics/RS232_standard.html#anchor1181440 • http://www.acumeninstruments.com/Support/documentation/SerialPortBasics/index_pg6.shtml • M68HC11 Reference Manual • Previous Student Lectures

  40. Questions ? Faisal Tanvir Abel Valdes Tsun-Yen Wu

  41. Asynchronous Serial Transmission Parity Bit • Used to check for errors • Helps verify signal integrity • 2 Types: -Even: makes sum of all high bits INCLUDING parity bit EVEN • -Odd: makes sum of all high bits • INCLUDING parity bit ODD • Not applicable to HC11 Parity Bit (H or L) Data Bit 7

  42. An example of even parity parity start stop 0x52 ? Start Bit Data Bit 0 Data Bit 1 Parity Bit Stop Bit Stop Bit Data Bit 2 Data Bit 3 Data Bit 4 Data Bit 5 Data Bit 6 Data Bit 7 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

  43. Asynchronous Serial Transmission Stop Bit • Stop bit indicates all data has been transmitted • 1 or 2 Stop bits Stop Bit 1 Stop Bit 2 Parity or Bit 7

  44. Asynchronous Serial Transmission • Transmitter and receiver operate independently- Same baud rate- Same data format • Requires a start and stop bit to identify each byte of data

  45. Asynchronous Transmission Format • Bit Types • Start Bit • Data Bits • Parity Bit • Stop Bit • Bit types are used to differentiate between words • For HC11, 10 or 11 bits

  46. Asynchronous Serial Transmission Start Bit • If line is idle, it continuously sends high (1) logic bit • Each word preceded by start bit • Signals receiver that data is about to be transmitted • Low (0) logic bit Previously HIGH Start Bit Now LOW

  47. Asynchronous Serial Transmission Data Bits • The content of the package • Usually 8 bits • LSB sent First Ex: This transmitted word is 10111001, or $B9 LSB MSB Data Bit 0 Data Bit 3 Data Bit 4 Data Bit 5 Data Bit 7 Data Bit 1 Data Bit 2 Data Bit 6 FLOW