Treatment of the Japanese in the US • Anti-Japanese Paranoia • Large migration of Japanese in the West Coast • Hysterical frenzy growing from attack on Pearl Harbor • Executive order of FDR (Executive Order 9066) • Mistreatment • Evacuation order commenced the round-up of 120,000 Americans of Japanese heritage to one of 10 internment camps • “Relocation Camps” • Camp life hard • Internees allowed to bring few possessions • In many cases they had been given just 48 hours to evacuate their homes. • "It was really cruel and harsh. To pack and evacuate in forty-eight hours was an impossibility. Seeing mothers completely bewildered with children crying from want and peddlers taking advantage and offering prices next to robbery made me feel like murdering those responsible without the slightest compunction in my heart." ~Joseph YoshisukeKurihara speaking of the Terminal Island evacuation.
Treatment of the Japanese in the US • Life- Born 1919 in Oakland, CA • After World War II broke out, Japanese living in Pacific states were subject to curfews, and later sent to internment camps. Korematsu refused to go to an internment camp. In 1942 he was arrested and sent to a camp. • FRED KOREMATSU VS. THE UNITED STATES • Questioned the government relocations methods in court • Claimed forced residency onto particular property illegal • Imprisonment of his people was a direct violation of civil liberties and the human rights afforded to American citizens in the United States Constitution • Verdict • Ruled in favor of the United States • “the preservation and protection of the general population of the United States outweighed the individual who was detained in a prison”
Other Internments Camps of the US • Germans & Italians were also put into internment camps across the US. • German Americans • The government used many constitutionally questionable methods to control persons of German ancestry, including internment, individual and group exclusion from military zones, internee exchanges, deportation, repatriation, "alien enemy" registration, travel restrictions and property confiscation. • By the end of the war, 11,000 people of German ancestry were interned. Crystal City, Texas Family Internment Camp (Work Crew of Japanese and German internees)
Other Internments Camps of the US • Italians in Camps • Italian internment camps were less recognized from both Japanese and German. • Unlike Japanese internees, Italians received no reparations payments for the time of imprisonment. • Italian Americans interned under the War Relocation Authority were not arrested under the Enemy Alien Act, but were simply "persons" removed under the War Relocation Authority. • Discrepancy over who should have to be imprisoned in the camp • "Italian American" as anyone within the Italian community, native-born U.S. citizens or Italian-born non-U.S. citizens • Felt that only Italian-born non-US citizens should be interned
Timeline • December 7, 1941- Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor • December 11, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States • February 19, 1942- Executive Order 9066 put into effect • February 25, 1942- Navy informs Japanese American residents of Terminal Island near Los Angeles Harbor that they must leave in 48 hours • March 18, 1942- Executive Order 9102 establishing the War Relocation Authority (interned the Italians and Germans) • December 18, 1944- Korematsu v. United States • May 7, 1945- End of World War II in Europe • September 2, 1945- Japanese Surrender; Final Finish of WWII • July 2, 1948- Evacuation Claims Act passed, giving internees until January 3, 1950 to file claims against the government for damages to or loss of real or personal property consequence of the evacuation. Total of $31 million paid by the government for property lost by internees. • February 19, 1950- President Gerald Ford formally rescinds Executive Order No. 9066.
During World War Two, how were minorities mistreated due to the rising delirium of the American people?