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Reproduction

Reproduction

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Reproduction

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  1. Reproduction

  2. Asexual Reproduction- involves only one parent, produces a new organism genetically identical to the parent.

  3. Sexual Reproduction- involves the production and fusion of sperm and egg (1 or 2 parents), produces variation in offspring.

  4. Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction

  5. Asexual ReproductionOnly 1 Parent-All Kingdoms1. Binary Fission/Mitosis-one cell divides into two cells…

  6. Binary Fission/Mitosis allows for no genetic variability!

  7. Bacteria- Binary Fission- splitting into 2

  8. How fast can bacteria reproduce?

  9. Exponential growth 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 512

  10. Single celled Eukaryotes- Mitosis (nucleus breaks apart and reforms 2 nuclei in 2 different cells)

  11. 2. Budding-offspring begins to develop on the parents body and then fragments off the original parent-Hydra

  12. Figure 46.1 Two from one: asexual reproduction of a sea anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)

  13. 3. Vegetative Propagationproducing new plants from existing vegetative structures,

  14. 4. Fragmentationthe body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces, each of which can produce an offspring Sea Stars

  15. Sponges

  16. 5. Regenerationif a piece of a parent is detached, it can regrow

  17. 6. ParthenogenesisAn unfertilized egg develops into an adult Parthenogenesis: Aphids, honeybees, lizards

  18. 7. Spore Formation Are produced by many organisms(algae, fungi, bacteria) Contain DNA, Cytoplasm & tough outer wall-protects it from drying out.

  19. When conditions are favorable-spores germinate & grow

  20. Sexual Reproduction

  21. Simple Sexual Reproduction Conjugation: sexual process in some simple organisms in which genetic material is transferred by cell to cell contact. 1. Kingdom Protist: Algae ex: Chlamydamonas • Alternation of generations: both haploid and diploid generations exist

  22. asexual n Sexual conjugation 2n zygospore

  23. Chlamydomonas- (green algae) Reproduces asexually most of the time, it can also reproduce sexually under certain environmental conditions.

  24. 2. Kingdom Fungi • Conjugation occurs between different hypha Bread Mold

  25. 3. Kingdom Eubacteria: prokaryotes • Not a true form of sexual reproduction • Plasmid: pieces of genetic material transferred from one bacteria to another • Form a connecting bridge of cytoplasm (pilus)

  26. Stamens & Carpels

  27. Pollination/Fertilization

  28. Plant life cycles 2 Stages- alternation of generations. Sporophyte-is the diploid (2n) stage that produces spores by meiosis Gametophyte-is the haploid(n) stage that produces gametes by mitosis (pollen, ovule)

  29. Sexual Reproduction • Pollen production

  30. In the female gametophyte-2 haploid nuclei go to the center-polar nuclei & 1 egg.

  31. Male Gametophyte is in the pollen on the anther. • Female Gametophyte is in the ovule in the ovary.

  32. Parts of a Flower Stigma Petal Style Sepal Filament Anther ovary 8. Structures 1, 3, & 7 make up the structured female structure called the 9. Structures 5 & 6 make up the male structure called the 10. The ovule(s) is found within the 11. Which structure is the site of pollen production? 12. Which structure is the recipient of the pollen? 13. Which structure protects the reproductive parts and attracts pollinators? 14. The structure that will eventually become a fruit is the 15. The structure that holds the anther upright is the 16. Does a plant produce more pollen or more ovules? Explain.

  33. Double Fertilization

  34. Double Fertilization-1 sperm fertilizes the central cell (future endosperm), other fertilizes the egg (future embryo) Double fertilization

  35. Sexual Reproduction • Female Gametophyte What is 3n? 2n? What part will become food for the new embryo?

  36. Sexual Reproduction

  37. Reproduction in Animals • For almost all animals, the organism is always diploid • Only the gametes are haploid

  38. Some animals may be able to reproduce either asexually or sexually, like the sponges. More complex animals, it is sexual reproductionthat is predominant.

  39. Gametes are produced in the sex organs –gonads Sperm is produced in the testes Eggs are produced in the ovaries. Gametes are made through the process of meiosis

  40. Among simpler organisms, both kinds of sex organs develop in the same individual. These animals are called hermaphrodites

  41. Why would separate sexes be an adaptation? MORE VARIETY

  42. Fertilization Sperm + Egg