MATHTEACHING MATH TO YOUNG CHILDREN 1 napkin 1 straw 12 marshmallows 10 fruit loops 5 toothpicks 1 licorice string (it is okay if it breaks)
TRY TO MEMORIZE THESE SYMBOLS Top to bottom, left to right: 1, 7, 12, 3, 6, 4, 5, 10, 8, 9, 11, 2
NOW TEST YOURSELF: A taste of what a child has to accomplish when learning numbers.
The better children were at reading as preschoolers, the better they were at reading in elementary school. And the better preschoolers were at mathematics, the better they were at mathematics in later grades. This is important, but not surprising. However, this is only half of the story. • Early reading predicts only later reading ability. Mathematics in preschool predicts not only mathematics, but also later literacy and reading skills. Mathematics is a general cognitive skill stepping stone for many areas. • Teaching children math / February 2008 Clements and Sarama
Math is in Everyday Life • More than just • 1 - 2 - 3 • Where do we see math? • Recipes, cleaning up, getting dressed, laundry, dishes, the sandbox, toys, songs, stories …
MATH in Stories, SONGS, AND FINGERPLAYS 1,2,3,4,5 once I Caught a Fish Alive 6,7,8,9,10 Then I let him go again. Why’d-ya let him go again? ‘cause he bit my finger so! Which finger did he bite? This little finger on the right. • Other stories and songs that deal with MATH concepts? • 5 Little Monkeys in a tree or on the Bed • 5 Little Speckled Frogs or Little Ducks • How much is a million? • Silly Sally • The old Woman Who Swallowed a fly
TEACHING MATH 1. Consider children’s interests and prior knowledge • 2. Social interaction is important • Oral language is important in development of math skills. • Necessary for the development of every task and skill. • Provide opportunities for discussing and questioning • 3. MATH CONCEPTS SHOULD BE CONCRETE and MANIPULATIVE • Objects that provide hands on learning experiences. • Filled with PLAY and Exploration
MATHEMATICAL Manipulatives • MANIPULATIVES • Felt & magnetic numbers & shapes • Peg boards / Geo Boards • Ruler, measuring tapes, measuring cups, scales • Play money & cash registers • Calendars • Timers, clocks, Thermometers • Counting rods • Light & heavy objects • Buttons, keys, spools • Puzzles
TEACHING MATH • 4. Repetition is an important part of all learning. • 5. Mistakes are great & a very natural part of the • learning process. • - Reteach the concept in a different way and continue • practicing the skill. - Break it down into small and simple steps and go slow. - Use manipulatives for hands on (tactile) learning.
6. Introduce new Vocabulary More and less together Bunch most Once - Twice Pair Long, tall, & Short group Big & Little High & Low First, middle & Last Wide & Narrow Few & Many Highest & Lowest Light and heavy Same and different
CONCEPT #1: Counting • Rote Counting • Learned by memorization • Tell how many • Touch objects • One to one correspondence • Count as we clap, climb stairs, eat, sidewalk squares, jump up and down • Touch points Number link
TOUCH POINTS (DOT) NUMBERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Counting IDEAS • Playing board games • Chutes and Ladders, Hi-Ho Cherry-O • Feed the Bear • Roll a dice and throw that number of Bean Bags into the bears mouth • Activity Dice • Roll a dice and draw an activity card. Do that activity the number on the dice. Ie: jump 3 times. • *Touch each object as you count it so it is only counted once. • *Hold up a number for them to recognize and count out that many. • *Eat only 1 - now how many? TRY THIS ACTIVITY
CONCEPT #2: Measure up • Figuring the measurement of objects • Length, height, weight, size • Measuring units: inch, pound, quart, • Use their hand, their pencil, candy… to measure • Measurement comparisons • Bigger, lighter, more than, …
Measuring IDEAS • It was this big! • Cut out several different sizes of fish. Have rulers for the children to compare the different lengths of fish. Use the fish to measure items. • Longer or shorter straw game. • Cut straws into different lengths and place in a bag. Write the words “longer” and “shorter” on cards and turn them over. Take turns each drawing a straw and then turn over 1 card. The word on the card determines the winner. TRY THIS ACTIVITY
CONCEPT #3: Classification and sorting • Putting items together that are alike in some way or that belong together - categorizing. • Ask: Does this belong? • Sort boys/girls • Sort children by hair or eye color • Sort different types of animals • Sort buttons, laundry, dishes • Sorting trays help organize. • clear cup, egg carton, muffin tin, ice cube tray
Classifying IDEAS • Glue buttons to a sturdy board. • Give the children a piece of yarn and show them how to wrap it around the buttons to make designs. • Have children wrap the yarn around the same color of buttons, or a certain number of buttons, etc. • TEACH SHAPES: • Ask the children to create a rectangle, square or triangle.
Have a pile of items: Colored beads, buttons, pompoms, feathers, etc. • Ask them to put / glue the appropriate color into the box labeled with the colors or other characteristic.
Beans, Beans, Beans • Combine a variety of beans in a large tote. • The children can then separate the beans into smaller bowls. TRY THIS ACTIVITY
CONCEPT #4: Statistics & Probability • Creating a visual representation of your discovery • Graph types of bugs found, growth of plants, hair or eye colors in class, etc. • Making a prediction • Predict how many flowers will bloom from seeds planted.
Statistics IDEAS • Graph - Types of shoes (tie, slip on, sandals/flip flops, sneakers) that students are wearing. - Have children pick out their 5 favorite foods and place their pictures on the graph. Count each of the items with the students and discuss which has more and less. • Chips are Down Game Drop math chips or other items into a jar. Have children lay the items that made it into the jar out in a line. Look at all of the children’s lines to see who made the most drop baskets. TRY THIS ACTIVITY
CONCEPT #5: Sequencing • The order of how to accomplish a task or how things happened. • Beginning, middle, last • Beginning and end • 1st, 2nd, 3rd then have them reverse it. • Sequence the order of pictures in a story
SEQUENCING ACTIVITY TRY THIS ACTIVITY 1 = Stand at attention 2 = Arms straight out to side 3 = Clap hands above head 4 = Hands on waist • Do all 4 actions as a class. • Divide into 4 groups. • Assign each an action to a group • Count and have every group do their movement • Do it faster. • What else can you put in a SEQUENCE?
Recipes are Sequencing • Cat Eye • Have snack crackers, peanut butter, bananas, and raisins available. • Have children create the snack from the poster. TRY THIS ACTIVITY
Concept #6 = Time • Children can start to read a clock • Have a digital clock next to a face clock • Time concepts must relate to their world • The length of their favorite TV show, “sleeps” • Before and after, sequence, timers • Salt / Water Timer in a cup. How fast will you eat your candy?
CONCEPT #7: Spatial relations • 1. Maps • - Map of the classroom • - Map the house • - Map of neighborhood • 2. Space / matter • - On, in, under, next to • - Dog in a dog house. • 3. Follow directions • - Draw or place the red flower next to the orange one. • - Place the red flower in the corner of the sand bucket.
Spatial Relationships IDEAS TRY THIS ACTIVITY • Have marshmallows and spaghetti noodles available for children to create a marshmallow sculpture. • Tinker toys, legos, lincoln logs,…
Concept #8Temperature • Cooking • Thermometer • Outside: • Temperature in the shade, sun, car, …
CONCEPT #9: Shapes • Shape identification • Pictures of shapes need name written on it (language development) • The shape of objects in a room • 2 & 3 dimension • Spheres, cubes, rectangular, prisms, cylinder (use correct names)
Tommy Triangle is the name for me. Tap my sides one, two, three. Ricky Rectangle is my name. My four sides are not the same. Two are short and two are long. One, two, three, four Sandy Square is my name. My four sides are just the same. Count one side and then count more. Count to two, then three, then four. Turn me around, I don’t care! I’m always the same, I’m sandy square. I’m Suzy Circle watch me bend, Round and round, from end to end. Ollie Oval that is me! I am not round as you can see. Like an egg that a hen has laid, That is the way I am made. Danny Diamond says, “The thing I am like is a colorful, Big, high-flying kite. oval circle triangle square rectangle diamond
Shapes IDEAS • Shape Hunt • Cut out a large circle, square, triangle and rectangle, and star. Place the objects around the room and have the children hunt for the different shapes. • Shape Move • Play a game where you move # of spaces of the # of shape sides (circle=0) • Don’t eat Shape!
CONCEPT #10: Patterning • Repeat & growing patterns • Logical reasoning • Eliminate ones that are different
Patterning iDEAS • Cut construction paper into 1” strips. • Have children pick two different colors of construction paper. • Alternate the strips and staple closed.
PATTERN Activity TRY THIS ACTIVITY • Fruit Loops on a paper plate • Students are to make a pattern on a very small straw (coffee/hot chocolate) using 10 fruit loops. • Put a small marshmallow on each end. You have just created an EDIBLE ABACUS • What else can be put in a PATTERN?
Concept #11 = Color • Using crayons or markers, trace the number and do the following: • 1 = Red • 2 = Blue • 3 = Green • 4 = Orange • 5 = Yellow • 6 = Purple • 7 = Pink • 8 = Brown • 9 = Black • 10 = Your Favorite Color 6 3 5 10 7 8 4 2 1 9 6
Color ideas “Bring me the red block vs. what color is this” • Transition times • Sorting by color • Play “I spy” • Color charts and graphs • Color associations
CONCEPT # 12: Money • Children can start to identify coins • Playing store helps children gain a sense of the cost of things • Label the food in the child care lab with prices, and allow the children to buy the food.
S M A R T By Shel S I L V E R S T E I n My dad gave me one dollar bill Cause I’m his smartest son, And I swapped it for two shiny quarters Cause two is more than one. And then I took the quarters And traded them to Lou For three dimes-I guess he don’t know That three is more than two. Just then, along came old blind Bates And just cause he can’t see He gave me four nickels for my three dimes, And four is more than three. And I took the nickels to Hiram Coombs Down at the seed-feed store, And the fool gave me five pennies for them, And five is more than four. And then I went and showed my dad, And he got red in the cheeks And closed his eyes and shook his head- Too proud of me to speak! TRY THIS ACTIVITY
CONCEPT #13: Seriating • Size relationships • Putting things in order based on Size, weight, and volume • Big, bigger, biggest • Tallest to shortest • Lightest to heaviest
Seriation IDEAS • Trace and cut out each of the children’s feet onto a sheet of paper. • Have the children put the feet in order of largest to smallest and vice versa. • Go Fishing: attach a paper clip to fish of different sizes. Attach a magnet to a rope and fish. Put the fish in order by size. Have 4 students come to the front of the room. Group them according to body height and then hair length.
SERIATION Activity • Take one piece of Shoe String Licorice and break into 4 pieces of different sizes. • Put in order of Shortest to Longest • What else is an example of SERIATION? TRY THIS ACTIVITY