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Teaching Young Children

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Teaching Young Children

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  1. Teaching Young Children OBJECTIVE 3.02 Understand selection and use of teaching methods.

  2. Teaching Young ChildrenPart 1: Selecting Teaching Methods • Ways Children Learn • The Role of Play Materials A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  3. Selecting Teaching Methods • In order to select appropriate teaching methods, you need to know about • The ways children learn • The role of play materials • Factors to consider when selecting toys and play materials A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  4. How do children learn? • From the environment • From a teacher • From their experiences A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  5. Learning from the environment • Using manipulative objects • Interactive environment with opportunities to explore and experiment A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  6. Learning from a teacher • Provides positive reinforcement • Is a good role model for children to imitate When a person shows someone else how to do something, this is called modeling. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  7. Learning from experiences • Sensory elements • Trial and error • Learn from mistakes • Address all areas of development A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  8. The Role of Play Materials

  9. Play is thebusinessof children.

  10. Play = Learning Play “plays” a very important role in learning.

  11. 2 Types of Play Materials • Open-ended --- can be used in a variety of ways, with no one correct way to play with them • Closed-ended --- structured materials meant to be used in one way, with one intended outcome A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  12. Can you think of examples of each? • Closed-ended • Open-ended Both types offer benefits for children. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  13. Benefits of Open-ended Materials for Children • Develop independence • Learn to make decisions • Learn to solve problems • Use their imagination A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  14. Benefits of Closed-ended Materials for Children • Learn to follow directions • Develop sensory perception • Help develop motor skills A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  15. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Safety • Rounded, smooth edges • Nontoxic A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  16. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Durability • Easy to clean • Appropriate for different ages • Encourages cooperative play, not aggressive play A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  17. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Number of children who can use at one time • Storage space available A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  18. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Multi-purpose • Encourages active involvement, not passive observation A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  19. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Teaches basic concepts • Allows for sensory learning A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  20. Factors to Consider When Selecting Toys & Play Materials • Enjoyed by both boys and girls • Fun to play with A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  21. Teaching Young ChildrenPart 2: Using Teaching Methods • Planning Lessons A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  22. Using Teaching Methods • In order to use teaching methods effectively, you need to know about • Planning lessons • Teaching styles • Teaching techniques A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  23. Lesson Plan • A detailed written explanation of a learning activity Like an architect prepares a blueprint so that the builder will know every detail about how the building should be built, and to guarantee that the building is physically sound and aesthetically pleasing; similarly, a teacher prepares a lesson plan with every detail about how the lesson is to be taught, which better ensures that the lesson will be effective and that children will participate and learn. The only difference is that . . . A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  24. The only difference is that the teacher is both the architect and the builder. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  25. Purposes of Lesson Plans • Serves as an organizational tool • Forces teachers to think ahead • Enables teachers to think through what they want to do • Provides time to gather needed materials • Can be saved for future reference A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  26. Results of Teaching without Lesson Plans??? • Lessons flounder and fail • Time wasted • Children bored • Materials not ready • Things left out chaos A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  27. Components of Lesson Plans Let’s look at each of these more closely. . . • Target age group • Topic or theme • Purpose • Concepts to be learned • Skills to be developed • Materials needed • Procedures • Questions • Follow-up activities • Evaluation A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  28. Target Age Group • Age or level of development of children Example: Three-year-olds A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  29. Purpose of Lesson • Stated as objectives • Things to aim for and reach • Targets Example: The learners will be able to (TLWBAT) recognize basic shapes. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  30. What could be an objective for this learning activity? A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  31. Concepts to Be LearnedSkills to Be Developed • List exactly the concepts and skills that will be learned/developed. Concept: Objects can be counted one at a time. Skill: Counting from 1 to 10 A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  32. Concepts to Be LearnedSkills to Be Developed • List exactly the concepts and skills that will be learned/developed. What concepts and skills can be developed from playing dress-up? Concept? Skill? A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  33. Materials Needed (Example) Materials Needed 6 sets crayons 1 4-in. paper square per child 6 bottles white glue Yarn, assorted lengths, colors • List all materials needed • State quantities • This serves as the teacher’s checklist for getting prepared. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  34. Procedures • Outline steps for leading the activity • Put them in correct sequence • Be thorough • (Example) • Procedures: • Have children sit in a circle. • Introduction: Ask children to close their eyes and picture their most favorite food. • Tell children that they are going to learn about foods that make their bodies strong and healthy. • Read the first page of the book . . . A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  35. Lessons usually include these lesson functions: • Focus and review - an introduction to capture attention, focus on the topic, review • Statement of objective – to state what children will learn • Teacher input – to introduce new information • Student guided practice – to give children a chance to use the new information • Independent practice –to see how well children can do things on their own • Closure - to summarize, bring the activity to an end Closure may include transition to the next activity... A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  36. Example: “What happens if we push just one button at a time?” Questions • To focus thinking and guide learning A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  37. Follow-up Activities • To reinforce what was learned • To provide additional help for children who need it A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  38. Example: “Next time I will remember to work with a smaller number of children at a time . . .” Evaluation • To assess the effectiveness of the lesson • Number of children who were successful • Adaptations needed for different ability levels • Ways to improve • Would you use again? A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  39. Transitions • Short activities that guide children smoothly from one activity to another A transition serves as a bridge . . . A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  40. Transition signals may be visual or auditory. A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  41. “Move to Circle Time like an elephant walking through the jungle. Transition Methods • Move a few children at a time while others do another activity • Sort children by colors of clothing worn (or other categories); move by groups • Have children move as though they were specific animals A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  42. Transition Methods • To start an activity, use a prop or something special to capture interest • For clean-up transition, use a job board or a job jar • Use choice time to let children decide the activity they wish to do next Job Jar A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  43. Teaching Young ChildrenPart 3: Using Teaching Methods • Teaching Styles • Teaching Techniques A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  44. Think about the ways in which some of YOUR teachers conduct their classes . . . TeachingStyles • The ways in which teachers conduct their classes A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  45. Teaching style includes • The teacher’s expectations about behavior • The degree of structure in lessons • The degree of spontaneity in lessons You know, spontaneous! Spontaneity is when the teacher follows her impulses, lets things happen naturally. What’s spontaneity? A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  46. Factors Affecting Teaching Styles • The teacher’s personality • The teacher’s own learning style • The teacher’s beliefs about teaching and learning A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  47. Ways Children Respond to Teaching Styles • One style is not necessarily better • Children benefit from many different styles • Sensitive teachers are aware of their own teaching styles • Effective teachers know how to adapt their styles as needed A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  48. Teaching Techniques A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  49. Teaching Technique #1:Arrange the environment • Provide adequate space • Organize space so activity can be done safely and easily A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods

  50. Teaching Technique #2:Set the stage Ready... Set... • Use an opener to catch their attention • Let children know what to expect • Help children get into the right frame of mind • Use a focus object – an item related to the activity that helps introduce it A- 3.02 - Teaching Methods