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Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders PowerPoint Presentation
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Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

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Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

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  1. Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

  2. Introduction • Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs • You must recognize adverse conditions • Inflamed skin • Diseases • Infectious skin disorders

  3. Skin care specialists are in high demand • High end salons/spas • Work less arduous and physically demanding

  4. Aging of the Skin • Process that takes many years • Do not necessarily age as your parents

  5. Intrinsic Factors • Genetic aging • How your parents aged • Their skin coloring • Resistance to sun damage • Gravity

  6. Facial expressions • Repeated movements – expression lines • Crow’s feet – eyes • Nasolabial folds – corners of the nose • Scowl lines – between eyes

  7. Extrinsic Factors • Primarily environmental factors • Up to 85% of skin aging • What we choose to put into our bodies has a profound effect on the over all aging process

  8. Sun Exposure • Tanning= no-no • Daily doses – damaging causing • # 1 cause of premature aging • Use broad spectrum sunscreen every day – (most makeup has)

  9. Smoking • Free Radicals – unstable molecules that cause biochemical aging • Causes premature wrinkling of the skin • Weakening and contractions of the blood vessels and small capillaries • Tissues are deprived of essential oxygen • Skin may have a yellow or gray tone to it and a dullness

  10. Alcohol • Causes body to repair itself poorly • Interferes with proper nutrition distribution for skin & body tissues • Over dilates the blood vessels and capillaries • Causes capillaries to weaken and burst • Flushed appearance and blotchy red eyes • Dehydrates the skin by drawing out essential water • Causing the skin to appear dull and dry

  11. Smoking & Alcohol • Combination can be devastating to the skin • Constant dilation and contraction of capillaries and blood vessels as well as oxygen and water deprivation quickly make skin appear lifeless and dull • Difficult for skin to adjust and repair itself

  12. Illegal drug use • Similar effects of smoking • Interfere with body’s intake of oxygen – affecting healthy cell growth • Some can aggravate skin conditions – acne • Dryness and allergic reactions on skin surface

  13. Cumulative stress – • Causes biochemical changes that lead to tissue damage • Poor nutrition – deprives skin of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals needed • Exposure to pollution – produces free radicals and interferes with oxygen consumption

  14. Outside factors that influence aging • Sun • Environment • Health habits • General lifestyle • Heredity has little to do with the aging process when above factors are so great (15%)

  15. The Sun and its Effects • The sun and its UV rays have the greatest impact • 80 – 85 % of our aging process is caused by the rays • Collagen and elastin fibers weaken as we age • Happens faster when skin is frequently exposed

  16. UVA Rays • “Aging rays” • 90 – 95% rays reach the earth • Rays weaken the collagen and elastin fibers • Causes wrinkling and sagging in skin tissues

  17. UVB Rays • “Burning” rays • Affects the melanocytes • Rays can destroy melanocytes cells so they can no longer protect the skin • Do not penetrate as deep as UVA rays • Can be equally damaging to the skin and eyes • UVB rays do contribute to the body’s absorption of vitamin D

  18. UVB rays - cause • Sunburns • Tanning • Majority of skin cancers • Shorter rays that penetrate at the base of epidermis

  19. Precautions • Sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher • Avoid exposure during peak hours (10 am – 3 pm) • Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before exposure to allow for absorption • Reapply sunscreen after water activity and sweating • Sunscreen should be full or broad spectrum to filter both UVA & UVB rays – check expiration dates

  20. Avoid exposure for children under 6 months • Wear protective clothing • See Dermatologist regularly if changes in moles • Coloration • Size • shape • Self-care examinations

  21. Skin Aging and the Environment • Air pollutants affect the overall appearance and health • Factories • Auto exhaust • Secondhand smoke • Speeds up the aging process

  22. Follow daily skin routine • Washing • Exfoliating - Removes dead skin cells • Moisturizers • Protective lotions • Foundation

  23. Disorders of the Skin • Objective symptoms Symptoms that can be seen • Subjective symptoms Symptoms that are those that can be felt • Prognosis Foretelling of probable course of a disease • Diagnosis Recognition of a disease by its symptoms

  24. Occupational Disorders on Cosmetology • Dermatitis Venerate – allergies developed to ingredients in: • Cosmetics • Antiseptics • Cold waving lotions aniline derivative tints • WEAR GLOVES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  25. Contact Dermatitis • An inflammation of the skin caused by contact with chemicals or substances

  26. Allergic Contact Dermatitis • Develops an allergy to an ingredients or a chemical by repeated skin contact • Sensitization – • An allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance • Fingers • Face • scalp

  27. Irritant Contact Dermatitis • When irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis • Not usually chronic if precautions are taken • Corrosive substances or exfoliants • Inflammation, redness, swelling , itching, burning

  28. WEAR GLOVES!!!!! Or use tongs!!!!!! • Hand washing causes dryness and cracking – use moisturizers

  29. Protect Yourself • Keep implements and surfaces clean and disinfected • Wear gloves • Keep hands clean and moisturized

  30. Disorders of the Skin • You must be prepared to recognize certain skin conditions • Know what you can and cannot work on • If you see a skin condition you do not recognize – refer to a physician • DO NOT serve a client who has an inflamed skin disorder

  31. Lesions of the Skin • Lesion – is a mark that may indicate an injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues or organs • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary

  32. Primary Lesions • Different color or raised above surface • Bulla – A large blister containing a watery fluid • Cyst – A closed, abnormally developed sac, containing fluid, semifluid or morbid matter

  33. Primary Lesions Continued • Macule – A spot or discoloration on the skin – freckle • Nodule – a solid lump larger than .4 inches, can be easily felt • Papule – A pimple, contains no fluid but may develop pus

  34. Primary Lesions Continued • Pustule – An inflamed pimple containing pus • Tubercle – An abnormal rounded, solid lump

  35. Primary Lesions Continued • Tumor – A swelling; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varies in size, shape and color • Vesicle – A small blister or sac containing clear fluid – • Ex: poison ivy , poison oak

  36. Primary Lesions Continued • Wheal – An itchy swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours • Ex: insect bite, urticaria (skin allergy), hives, mosquito bite

  37. Secondary Lesion • Those that develop in the later stages of disease: • Crust - Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing • Ex: scab on a sore

  38. Secondary Lesions Continued • Excoriation – A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping • Ex: brush burn • Fissure – A crack in the skin • Ex: chapped lips or hands

  39. Secondary Lesions Continued • Keloid – A thick scar • Scale – Thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily • Ex: dandruff • Scar – Cicatrix – Light colored, slightly raised mark formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed

  40. Ulcer – An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth

  41. Disorders of the Sebaceous Glands • Open Comedo/Comedone – Blackhead – a wormlike mass of hardened sebum in a hair follicle – keratin and sebum • T-zone • Sebum exposed to environment, oxidizes and turn black

  42. Closed Comedo Milia – Whiteheads • Should be removed under sterile conditions using proper extraction procedures

  43. Milia – Whiteheads – benign, keratin filled • small, whitish, pear-like masses in/under the epidermis • due to retention of sebum • associated with fine-textures, dry skin types • Sesame seed –round • Eyes, cheeks, forehead

  44. Acne – A skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions, bacteria – Propionbacterium acnes • Two Types • Simple Acne • Acne Vulgaris • Sebaceous Cyst – large protruding pocket-like lesion filled with sebum • Scalp, back • Surgically removed

  45. Seborrheic dermatitis – skin condition caused by an inflammation of the sebaceous gland • Redness, dry or oily scaling, crusting, itchiness • Eyebrows, beard, scalp, middle forehead, sides of nose • Cortisone creams, antifungal medications

  46. Rosacea – (formerly - Acne Rosacea) is a chronic congestion appearing primarily on the cheeks and nose • Characterized by – redness, dilation of the blood vessels and the formation of papules and pustules • Cause unknown • Aggravated by: spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, exposure to extremes of heat and cold or sunlight, and stress

  47. Asteatosis – Is a condition of dry, scaly skin due to a deficiency or absence of sebum, caused by old age and exposure to cold

  48. Steatoma – (Wen) Is a sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor, filled with sebum and ranges in size from a pea to an orange • Usually appears on the back, neck or scalp

  49. Disorders of the Sudoriferous Glands • Anhidrosis – Deficiency in perspiration • Result of a fever or certain skin diseases • Requires medical attention • Bromhidrosis – Foul smelling perspiration • Usually more noticeable in armpits and feet • Hyperhidrosis – Excessive sweating • Cause by: heat or general body weakness • Medical attention is required

  50. Miliaria Rubra – Prickly heat – heat rash • Characterized by: eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin • Caused by: exposure to excessive heat