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Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders. Introduction. Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs You must recognize adverse conditions Inflamed skin Diseases Infectious skin disorders. Skin care specialists are in high demand High end salons/spas

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Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

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  1. Module 8 – 12’: Skin Diseases and Disorders

  2. Introduction • Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs • You must recognize adverse conditions • Inflamed skin • Diseases • Infectious skin disorders

  3. Skin care specialists are in high demand • High end salons/spas • Work less arduous and physically demanding

  4. Aging of the Skin • Process that takes many years • Do not necessarily age as your parents

  5. Intrinsic Factors • Genetic aging • How your parents aged • Their skin coloring • Resistance to sun damage • Gravity

  6. Facial expressions • Repeated movements – expression lines • Crow’s feet – eyes • Nasolabial folds – corners of the nose • Scowl lines – between eyes

  7. Extrinsic Factors • Primarily environmental factors • Up to 85% of skin aging • What we choose to put into our bodies has a profound effect on the over all aging process

  8. Sun Exposure • Tanning= no-no • Daily doses – damaging causing • # 1 cause of premature aging • Use broad spectrum sunscreen every day – (most makeup has)

  9. Smoking • Free Radicals – unstable molecules that cause biochemical aging • Causes premature wrinkling of the skin • Weakening and contractions of the blood vessels and small capillaries • Tissues are deprived of essential oxygen • Skin may have a yellow or gray tone to it and a dullness

  10. Alcohol • Causes body to repair itself poorly • Interferes with proper nutrition distribution for skin & body tissues • Over dilates the blood vessels and capillaries • Causes capillaries to weaken and burst • Flushed appearance and blotchy red eyes • Dehydrates the skin by drawing out essential water • Causing the skin to appear dull and dry

  11. Smoking & Alcohol • Combination can be devastating to the skin • Constant dilation and contraction of capillaries and blood vessels as well as oxygen and water deprivation quickly make skin appear lifeless and dull • Difficult for skin to adjust and repair itself

  12. Illegal drug use • Similar effects of smoking • Interfere with body’s intake of oxygen – affecting healthy cell growth • Some can aggravate skin conditions – acne • Dryness and allergic reactions on skin surface

  13. Cumulative stress – • Causes biochemical changes that lead to tissue damage • Poor nutrition – deprives skin of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals needed • Exposure to pollution – produces free radicals and interferes with oxygen consumption

  14. Outside factors that influence aging • Sun • Environment • Health habits • General lifestyle • Heredity has little to do with the aging process when above factors are so great (15%)

  15. The Sun and its Effects • The sun and its UV rays have the greatest impact • 80 – 85 % of our aging process is caused by the rays • Collagen and elastin fibers weaken as we age • Happens faster when skin is frequently exposed

  16. UVA Rays • “Aging rays” • 90 – 95% rays reach the earth • Rays weaken the collagen and elastin fibers • Causes wrinkling and sagging in skin tissues

  17. UVB Rays • “Burning” rays • Affects the melanocytes • Rays can destroy melanocytes cells so they can no longer protect the skin • Do not penetrate as deep as UVA rays • Can be equally damaging to the skin and eyes • UVB rays do contribute to the body’s absorption of vitamin D

  18. UVB rays - cause • Sunburns • Tanning • Majority of skin cancers • Shorter rays that penetrate at the base of epidermis

  19. Precautions • Sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher • Avoid exposure during peak hours (10 am – 3 pm) • Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before exposure to allow for absorption • Reapply sunscreen after water activity and sweating • Sunscreen should be full or broad spectrum to filter both UVA & UVB rays – check expiration dates

  20. Avoid exposure for children under 6 months • Wear protective clothing • See Dermatologist regularly if changes in moles • Coloration • Size • shape • Self-care examinations

  21. Skin Aging and the Environment • Air pollutants affect the overall appearance and health • Factories • Auto exhaust • Secondhand smoke • Speeds up the aging process

  22. Follow daily skin routine • Washing • Exfoliating - Removes dead skin cells • Moisturizers • Protective lotions • Foundation

  23. Disorders of the Skin • Objective symptoms Symptoms that can be seen • Subjective symptoms Symptoms that are those that can be felt • Prognosis Foretelling of probable course of a disease • Diagnosis Recognition of a disease by its symptoms

  24. Occupational Disorders on Cosmetology • Dermatitis Venerate – allergies developed to ingredients in: • Cosmetics • Antiseptics • Cold waving lotions aniline derivative tints • WEAR GLOVES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  25. Contact Dermatitis • An inflammation of the skin caused by contact with chemicals or substances

  26. Allergic Contact Dermatitis • Develops an allergy to an ingredients or a chemical by repeated skin contact • Sensitization – • An allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance • Fingers • Face • scalp

  27. Irritant Contact Dermatitis • When irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis • Not usually chronic if precautions are taken • Corrosive substances or exfoliants • Inflammation, redness, swelling , itching, burning

  28. WEAR GLOVES!!!!! Or use tongs!!!!!! • Hand washing causes dryness and cracking – use moisturizers

  29. Protect Yourself • Keep implements and surfaces clean and disinfected • Wear gloves • Keep hands clean and moisturized

  30. Disorders of the Skin • You must be prepared to recognize certain skin conditions • Know what you can and cannot work on • If you see a skin condition you do not recognize – refer to a physician • DO NOT serve a client who has an inflamed skin disorder

  31. Lesions of the Skin • Lesion – is a mark that may indicate an injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues or organs • Primary • Secondary • Tertiary

  32. Primary Lesions • Different color or raised above surface • Bulla – A large blister containing a watery fluid • Cyst – A closed, abnormally developed sac, containing fluid, semifluid or morbid matter

  33. Primary Lesions Continued • Macule – A spot or discoloration on the skin – freckle • Nodule – a solid lump larger than .4 inches, can be easily felt • Papule – A pimple, contains no fluid but may develop pus

  34. Primary Lesions Continued • Pustule – An inflamed pimple containing pus • Tubercle – An abnormal rounded, solid lump

  35. Primary Lesions Continued • Tumor – A swelling; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varies in size, shape and color • Vesicle – A small blister or sac containing clear fluid – • Ex: poison ivy , poison oak

  36. Primary Lesions Continued • Wheal – An itchy swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours • Ex: insect bite, urticaria (skin allergy), hives, mosquito bite

  37. Secondary Lesion • Those that develop in the later stages of disease: • Crust - Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing • Ex: scab on a sore

  38. Secondary Lesions Continued • Excoriation – A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping • Ex: brush burn • Fissure – A crack in the skin • Ex: chapped lips or hands

  39. Secondary Lesions Continued • Keloid – A thick scar • Scale – Thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily • Ex: dandruff • Scar – Cicatrix – Light colored, slightly raised mark formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed

  40. Ulcer – An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth

  41. Disorders of the Sebaceous Glands • Open Comedo/Comedone – Blackhead – a wormlike mass of hardened sebum in a hair follicle – keratin and sebum • T-zone • Sebum exposed to environment, oxidizes and turn black

  42. Closed Comedo Milia – Whiteheads • Should be removed under sterile conditions using proper extraction procedures

  43. Milia – Whiteheads – benign, keratin filled • small, whitish, pear-like masses in/under the epidermis • due to retention of sebum • associated with fine-textures, dry skin types • Sesame seed –round • Eyes, cheeks, forehead

  44. Acne – A skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions, bacteria – Propionbacterium acnes • Two Types • Simple Acne • Acne Vulgaris • Sebaceous Cyst – large protruding pocket-like lesion filled with sebum • Scalp, back • Surgically removed

  45. Seborrheic dermatitis – skin condition caused by an inflammation of the sebaceous gland • Redness, dry or oily scaling, crusting, itchiness • Eyebrows, beard, scalp, middle forehead, sides of nose • Cortisone creams, antifungal medications

  46. Rosacea – (formerly - Acne Rosacea) is a chronic congestion appearing primarily on the cheeks and nose • Characterized by – redness, dilation of the blood vessels and the formation of papules and pustules • Cause unknown • Aggravated by: spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, exposure to extremes of heat and cold or sunlight, and stress

  47. Asteatosis – Is a condition of dry, scaly skin due to a deficiency or absence of sebum, caused by old age and exposure to cold

  48. Steatoma – (Wen) Is a sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor, filled with sebum and ranges in size from a pea to an orange • Usually appears on the back, neck or scalp

  49. Disorders of the Sudoriferous Glands • Anhidrosis – Deficiency in perspiration • Result of a fever or certain skin diseases • Requires medical attention • Bromhidrosis – Foul smelling perspiration • Usually more noticeable in armpits and feet • Hyperhidrosis – Excessive sweating • Cause by: heat or general body weakness • Medical attention is required

  50. Miliaria Rubra – Prickly heat – heat rash • Characterized by: eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin • Caused by: exposure to excessive heat

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